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      Assessing post-cue exposure craving and its association with amount wagered in an optional betting task

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          Background and aims: The current study was designed to assess the impact of wins and losses in simulated blackjack on craving to gamble and to assess the extent to which this craving was associated with actual wagering in an optional gambling task. Methods: Participants were undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university in the United States. They completed the Gambling Urge Scale (GUS) and then were randomized to either a condition in which they would win 15 hands of blackjack (Win condition; n = 41) or lose 15 hands (Lose condition; n = 37) out of a total of 20 hands. After playing blackjack and completing several additional questionnaires, participants had the chance to wager their $5 compensation for the opportunity to win $50. Results: GUS scores increased significantly following blackjack, regardless of condition. We also found that post-blackjack craving was significantly associated with the amount participants wagered in the optional betting task, such that greater craving was associated with higher amount wagered. Conclusions: These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the GUS, provide novel findings regarding the effects of wins and losses when gambling, and provide evidence of an association between craving and a behavioral betting task.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: a research synthesis.

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            A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling.

            At the moment, there is no single conceptual theoretical model of gambling that adequately accounts for the multiple biological, psychological and ecological variables contributing to the development of pathological gambling. Advances in this area are hampered by imprecise definitions of pathological gambling, failure to distinguish between gambling problems and problem gamblers and a tendency to assume that pathological gamblers form one, homogeneous population with similar psychological principles applying equally to all members of the class. The purpose of this paper is to advance a pathways model that integrates the complex array of biological, personality, developmental, cognitive, learning theory and ecological determinants of problem and pathological gambling. It is proposed that three distinct subgroups of gamblers manifesting impaired control over their behaviour can be identified. These groups include (a) behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers, (b) emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers and (c) antisocial, impulsivist problem gamblers. The implications for clinical management are discussed.
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              The prevalence of problem gambling among U.S. adolescents and young adults: results from a national survey.

              A random telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 2,274 U.S. residents aged 14-21. The prevalence of problem gambling, as measured by the SOGS-RA, was 2.1%. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the respondents had gambled in the past year, and 11% had gambled more often than twice per week. Males had much higher gambling involvement than females, and gambling involvement increased among older respondents. Blacks were less likely than average to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to do so frequently. Low SES respondents were less likely to have gambled in the past year, but if they gambled, they were more likely to be problem gamblers. Life transitions that are associated with assuming adult roles (employment, living independently of parents, non-student status) are also associated with greater gambling involvement. The rates of problem and pathological gambling were lower than those in an adult survey conducted earlier, when measured with the same questionnaire.

                Author and article information

                J Behav Addict
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                September 2013
                14 June 2013
                : 2
                : 3
                : 133-137
                Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH, USA
                Author notes
                *Corresponding Author: Lisham Ashrafioun, Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA; Phone: +1-419-372-4520; Fax: +1-419-372-6013; lashraf@
                © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                blackjack, university students, gambling, craving


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