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      Rate of Decline of GFR and Progression of Vascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Diabetic or Vascular Nephropathy during the Last Three Years before Starting Dialysis Therapy

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          Abstract

          Background: The progression of chronic renal insufficiency depends on the type of primary renal disease and blood pressure (BP) levels. We investigated the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during 3 years prior to the start of dialysis therapy in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy (dNP) or vascular nephropathy (vNP). The aim of the study was to determine differences in the progression of renal insufficiency and the prevalence of vascular diseases in the two patient groups. Methods: In a retrospective study, we investigated type 2 diabetic patients with chronic renal insufficiency who were undergoing regular controls in our outpatient care unit for at least 3 years prior to the start of dialysis. We evaluated only patients who had already died under chronic dialysis therapy, and whose diagnosis of primary renal disease was histologically conformed at autopsy. A total of 40 type 2 diabetic patients were included in the study. Of these, 28 patients had dNP (age 62 ± 8 years) and 12 had vNP (age 70 ± 7 years). The following parameters were determined at 3- to 6-month intervals: body weight, BP, HbA1c, serum creatinine (Cr), Cr clearance (Cockroft formula), cholesterol and triglycerides. The prevalence of vascular disease in the two groups was also assessed. Results: The average decrease in Cr clearance was 7.7 ± 2.4 ml/min/year in patients with dNP and 7.7 ± 2.1 ml/min/year in those with vNP (NS). During the entire observation period, mean HbA1c values (7.0 ± 0.8 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6%), systolic BP (137 ± 8 vs. 138 ± 11 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (86 ± 4 vs. 87 ± 7 mm Hg), cholesterol and triglycerides did not differ significantly in the two groups. The prevalence of vascular disease 3 years prior to and at the start of dialysis therapy was similar in patients with dNP and vNP. Conclusion: The progression of dNP and vNP is similar at least during 3 years before the start of dialysis therapy. Vascular risk factors and the prevalence of vascular diseases were not significantly different in the two patient groups. However, diabetic patients with ESRD secondary to dNP were significantly younger than those with vNP.

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          The health care costs of diabetic nephropathy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

          Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes and can result in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) necessitating long-term dialysis or kidney transplantation. The costs of these complications are relatively high. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the rates and annual costs of DN in the USA and the UK. A cost of illness model was used to estimate the numbers of people with DN (microalbuminuria, overt nephropathy, and ESRD) or a previous kidney transplant at a given point in time and the numbers of new kidney transplants during a year. All costs were estimated in 2001 currencies. A sensitivity analysis assessed the robustness of the national annual cost estimates. In the USA, the total annual medical costs incurred by all payers in managing DN were US dollars 1.9 billion for Type 1 diabetes (range: US dollars 1.0-2.8 billion), US dollars 15.0 billion for Type 2 diabetes (range: US dollars 7.6-22.4 billion), and US dollars 16.8 billion for all diabetes (range: US dollars 8.5-25.2 billion). In the UK, the total annual costs to the National Health Service (NHS) of managing DN were US dollars 231 million ( pound 152 million) for Type 1 diabetes (range: US dollars 190-350 million [ pound 125-230 million]), US dollars 933 million (pound 614 million) for Type 2 diabetes (range: US dollars 809 million-US dollars 1.4 billion [pound 532-927 million]), and US dollars 1.2 billion ( pound 765 million) for all diabetes (range: US dollars 999 million-US dollars 1.8 billion [pound 657 million- pound 1.2 billion]). The total annual cost of DN is 13 times greater in the USA than in the UK. Controlling for the substantially higher number of people at risk, the total cost per person with DN and/or a kidney transplant is 40% higher: US dollars 3735 in the USA and US dollars 2672 (pound 1758) in the UK.
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            Accuracy of the diagnosis of hypertensive nephrosclerosis in African Americans: A report from the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK) Trial

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              Renal damage in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a strong predictor of mortality.

              (i) To compare mortality rates in a cohort of Type 2 diabetic patients with those of the general population; (ii) to assess the prognostic role of pre-existing chronic conditions; (iii) to evaluate the impact of different severity of renal damage on mortality. All 3892 patients with Type 2 diabetes attending our Diabetic Clinic during 1995 and alive on 1 January 1996 were identified and followed for 4.5 years. Information on vital status (100% complete) and causes of death (98.5% complete) for 599 deceased subjects was derived from death certificates. In comparison with the general population, standardized mortality ratios (x 100) were: 125 (95% confidence interval 104-148) in patients aged or = 75 years. Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes were responsible for most of the excess deaths. In a Cox-proportional hazard model, renal damage was a powerful predictor of death (hazard ratio = 2.39; 95% confidence intervals = 2.00-2.85). The severity of renal damage was associated with increasing hazard ratios for death from all-cause mortality and from specific causes (especially coronary artery disease, other cardiovascular causes and diabetes) after multiple adjustments. Other significant predictors of death were: greater age, glycated haemoglobin, smoking, lower body mass index, pre-existing coronary and peripheral artery disease and known co-morbidity (cirrhosis and cancer). Renal damage of any severity is significantly associated with subsequent mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular diseases. These associations are not confounded by pre-existing co-morbidity or coronary diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2006
                December 2006
                22 December 2006
                : 29
                : 5
                : 267-272
                Affiliations
                2nd Department of Medicine, General Hospital Linz, Linz, Austria
                Article
                96175 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:267–272
                10.1159/000096175
                17035711
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 13, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/96175
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