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      Characteristics of oil palm trunks for rearing of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Peruvian Amazon Translated title: Características de los troncos de palma aceitera para la crianza de Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en la Amazonía peruana


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          Abstract Introduction: In the Peruvian Amazon, felled oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) trunks are usually burned to prevent the increase of these residues. These trunks are also used for the rearing of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758) Csiki E., 1936 larvae, which locals use as a food source. Objective: To establish the relationship between the characteristics of the cut E. guineensis trunks and the rearing of R. palmarum larvae. Materials and methods: The research was conducted in three districts (San Pedro-Campo Verde, Tahuayo-Neshuya and Maronal-Curimaná) of the department of Ucayali, Peru. The correlation between the number of R. palmarum larvae and the length and diameter of the trunk’s central cylinder was analyzed using the Spearman coefficient (rs). In addition, the soil texture class was determined and the correlation with the number of larvae was established. Results and discussion: The length and diameter of the felled oil palm trunks were different (P < 0.05) in the three sites evaluated. There is no relationship between the number of R. palmarum larvae and the length and diameter of the trunk segments. By contrast, the soil’s clay loam texture is positively correlated with the number of larvae (rs = 1.00, P < 0.01). The number of larvae was higher in the Tahuayo-Neshuya district samples (145.67 ± 39.67; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Characteristics of the oil palm trunk are not associated with the development of R. palmarum.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Introducción: En la Amazonía peruana, los troncos cortados de palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) suelen quemarse para evitar el aumento de estos residuos. Estos troncos también se utilizan para la crianza de larvas Rhynchophorus palmarum (Linnaeus, 1758) Csiki E., 1936, que los lugareños usan como fuente de alimento. Objetivo: Establecer la relación que existe entre las características de los troncos cortados de E. guineensis y la crianza de larvas R. palmarum. Materiales y métodos: La investigación se hizo en tres distritos (San Pedro-Campo Verde, Tahuayo-Neshuya y Maronal-Curimaná) del departamento de Ucayali, Perú. La correlación del número de larvas de R. palmarum con la longitud y el diámetro del cilindro central del tronco se analizó mediante el coeficiente de Spearman (rs). Asimismo, se determinó la clase de textura del suelo y se estableció la correlación con el número de larvas. Resultados y discusión: La longitud y diámetro de los troncos cortados de palma aceitera fueron diferentes (P < 0.05) en las tres localidades evaluadas. No existe relación del número de larvas de R. palmarum con la longitud y el diámetro de los segmentos del tronco. En cambio, la textura franco arcillosa del suelo está correlacionada positivamente con el número de larvas (rs = 1.00, P < 0.01). El número de larvas fue mayor en las muestras del distrito Tahuayo-Neshuya (145.67 ± 39.67; P < 0.0001). Conclusión: Las características del tronco de palma aceitera no están asociadas con el desarrollo de R. palmarum.

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          Most cited references32

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          Yield gaps in oil palm: A quantitative review of contributing factors

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            Soil texture analyses using a hydrometer: modification of the Bouyoucos method

            A.N. Beretta, A.V. Silbermann, L. Paladino, D. Torres, D. Bassahun, R. Musselli, and A. García-Lamohte. 2014. Soil texture analyses by hydrometer: modifications of the Bouyoucos method. Cien. Inv. Agr. 41(2): 263-271. The Robinson pipette method (Pipette) is accurate and precise but time consuming. Bouyoucos (1936) proposed a more rapid and simpler procedure called the hydrometer method. Both analytical techniques are sedimentation procedures accepted as standard techniques for particle-size analysis. The sand, silt, and clay contents of several soil samples were determined using the Pipette method as a control and compared with the Bouyoucus, the Bouyoucos Modified (Bouyoucos_M) and the Bouyoucos Modified with gravimetric determination of the sand content (Bouyoucos_M-T) methods. Data obtained from these procedures was used to assess soil textural class, the soil erodibility coefficient (K), the water retained at field capacity (FC) and the permanent wilting point (PWP). In the Bouyoucos_M method, the soil organic matter (SOM) was destroyed and the dispersingagent concentration was increased. In the Bouyoucos_M-T method, the sand was quantified gravimetrically by sieving samples through a 53 µm mesh. The hydrometer and Pipette methods measurements correlated well. The Bouyoucos and the Bouyoucus-M methods overestimated the sand content. The performance of the Bouyoucos_M-T method did not differ from that of the Pipette method. Compared with the Pipette method, the Bouyoucus method underestimated the clay content, and the Bouyoucos_M method did not differ from the Pipette method. The values obtained with the Bouyoucos_M and the Bouyoucos methods underestimated the FC and the PWP, and Bouyoucos_M-T method did not differ from estimations based on the Pipette method data. The assessed K value was underestimated with the Bouyoucos_M method. The Bouyoucos and the Bouyoucos_M-T methods estimated the K values similar to the Pipette method. The Bouyucus_M-T method is suitable for determining the soil texture and inferring soil properties but is unacceptable for assessing the class texture for soil taxonomic classification.
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              Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective

              Throughout history humans have manipulated their natural environment for an increased predictability and availability of plant and animal resources. Research on prehistoric diets increasingly includes small game, but edible insects receive minimal attention. Using the anthropological and archaeological literature we show and hypothesize about the existence of such environmental manipulations related to the procurement of edible insects. As examples we use eggs of aquatic Hemiptera in Mexico which are semi-cultivated by water management and by providing egg laying sites; palm weevil larvae in the Amazon Basin, tropical Africa, and New Guinea of which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance and which are semi-cultivated by deliberately cutting palm trees at a chosen time at a chosen location; and arboreal, foliage consuming caterpillars in sub-Saharan Africa for which the collection is facilitated by manipulating host tree distribution and abundance, shifting cultivation, fire regimes, host tree preservation, and manually introducing caterpillars to a designated area. These manipulations improve insect exploitation by increasing their predictability and availability, and most likely have an ancient origin.

                Author and article information

                Revista Chapingo serie ciencias forestales y del ambiente
                Rev. Chapingo ser. cienc. for. ambient
                Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Coordinación de Revistas Institucionales (Chapingo, Estado de México, Mexico )
                December 2018
                : 24
                : 3
                : 405-414
                [3] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Federico Villarreal orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemática orgdiv2Laboratorio de Ecología y Biodiversidad Animal Peru
                [2] Pucallpa Ucayali orgnameUniversidad Nacional de Ucayali orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales Peru
                [4] Lima Lima orgnameUniversidad Ricardo Palma orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas orgdiv2Laboratorio de Parasitología Peru
                [1] Manantay Ucayali orgnameNegocios Amazónicos Sustentables Perú
                S2007-40182018000300405 S2007-4018(18)02400300405

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 26 March 2018
                : 27 July 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 32, Pages: 10

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                Scientific article

                cilindro central del tronco,Elaeis guineensis,clay loam soil,trunk’s central cylinder,clase de textura del suelo,soil texture class,suelo franco arcilloso


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