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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles: magnetic nanoplatforms as drug carriers

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      Abstract

      A targeted drug delivery system is the need of the hour. Guiding magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the help of an external magnetic field to its target is the principle behind the development of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as novel drug delivery vehicles. SPIONs are small synthetic γ-Fe 2O 3 (maghemite) or Fe 3O 4 (magnetite) particles with a core ranging between 10 nm and 100 nm in diameter. These magnetic particles are coated with certain biocompatible polymers, such as dextran or polyethylene glycol, which provide chemical handles for the conjugation of therapeutic agents and also improve their blood distribution profile. The current research on SPIONs is opening up wide horizons for their use as diagnostic agents in magnetic resonance imaging as well as for drug delivery vehicles. Delivery of anticancer drugs by coupling with functionalized SPIONs to their targeted site is one of the most pursued areas of research in the development of cancer treatment strategies. SPIONs have also demonstrated their efficiency as nonviral gene vectors that facilitate the introduction of plasmids into the nucleus at rates multifold those of routinely available standard technologies. SPION-induced hyperthermia has also been utilized for localized killing of cancerous cells. Despite their potential biomedical application, alteration in gene expression profiles, disturbance in iron homeostasis, oxidative stress, and altered cellular responses are some SPION-related toxicological aspects which require due consideration. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of SPIONs with regard to their method of preparation, their utility as drug delivery vehicles, and some concerns which need to be resolved before they can be moved from bench top to bedside.

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      Most cited references 323

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      We previously found that a polymer conjugated to the anticancer protein neocarzinostatin, named smancs, accumulated more in tumor tissues than did neocarzinostatin. To determine the general mechanism of this tumoritropic accumulation of smancs and other proteins, we used radioactive (51Cr-labeled) proteins of various molecular sizes (Mr 12,000 to 160,000) and other properties. In addition, we used dye-complexed serum albumin to visualize the accumulation in tumors of tumor-bearing mice. Many proteins progressively accumulated in the tumor tissues of these mice, and a ratio of the protein concentration in the tumor to that in the blood of 5 was obtained within 19 to 72 h. A large protein like immunoglobulin G required a longer time to reach this value of 5. The protein concentration ratio in the tumor to that in the blood of neither 1 nor 5 was achieved with neocarzinostatin, a representative of a small protein (Mr 12,000) in all time. We speculate that the tumoritropic accumulation of these proteins resulted because of the hypervasculature, an enhanced permeability to even macromolecules, and little recovery through either blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. This accumulation of macromolecules in the tumor was also found after i.v. injection of an albumin-dye complex (Mr 69,000), as well as after injection into normal and tumor tissues. The complex was retained only by tumor tissue for prolonged periods. There was little lymphatic recovery of macromolecules from tumor tissue. The present finding is of potential value in macromolecular tumor therapeutics and diagnosis.
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        Effect of pegylation on pharmaceuticals.

        Protein and peptide drugs hold great promise as therapeutic agents. However, many are degraded by proteolytic enzymes, can be rapidly cleared by the kidneys, generate neutralizing antibodies and have a short circulating half-life. Pegylation, the process by which polyethylene glycol chains are attached to protein and peptide drugs, can overcome these and other shortcomings. By increasing the molecular mass of proteins and peptides and shielding them from proteolytic enzymes, pegylation improves pharmacokinetics. This article will review how PEGylation can result in drugs that are often more effective and safer, and which show improved patient convenience and compliance.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
            [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Rae Bareli, India
            Author notes
            Correspondence: Wahajuddin, Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CSIR-Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, Uttar Pradesh, India, CSIR-CDRI communication no 8264. Tel +9152226124 11-18 extension 4377, Fax +91 52 2262 3405, Email wahajuddin@ 123456cdri.res.in
            Journal
            Int J Nanomedicine
            Int J Nanomedicine
            International Journal of Nanomedicine
            Dove Medical Press
            1176-9114
            1178-2013
            2012
            2012
            06 July 2012
            : 7
            : 3445-3471
            3405876
            22848170
            10.2147/IJN.S30320
            ijn-7-3445
            © 2012 Wahajuddin and Arora, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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