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      Heterodimerization of Glycosylated Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptors and Insulin Receptors in Cancer Cells Sensitive to Anti-IGF1R Antibody

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          Abstract

          Background

          Identification of predictive biomarkers is essential for the successful development of targeted therapy. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) has been examined as a potential therapeutic target for various cancers. However, recent clinical trials showed that anti-IGF1R antibody and chemotherapy are not effective for treating lung cancer.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          In order to define biomarkers for predicting successful IGF1R targeted therapy, we evaluated the anti-proliferation effect of figitumumab (CP-751,871), a humanized anti-IGF1R antibody, against nine gastric and eight hepatocellular cancer cell lines. Out of 17 cancer cell lines, figitumumab effectively inhibited the growth of three cell lines (SNU719, HepG2, and SNU368), decreased p-AKT and p-STAT3 levels, and induced G 1 arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, these cells showed co-overexpression and altered mobility of the IGF1R and insulin receptor (IR). Immunoprecipitaion (IP) assays and ELISA confirmed the presence of IGF1R/IR heterodimeric receptors in figitumumab-sensitive cells. Treatment with figitumumab led to the dissociation of IGF1-dependent heterodimeric receptors and inhibited tumor growth with decreased levels of heterodimeric receptors in a mouse xenograft model. We next found that both IGF1R and IR were N-linked glyosylated in figitumumab-sensitive cells. In particular, mass spectrometry showed that IGF1R had N-linked glycans at N913 in three figitumumab-sensitive cell lines. We observed that an absence of N-linked glycosylation at N913 led to a lack of membranous localization of IGF1R and figitumumab insensitivity.

          Conclusion and Significance

          The data suggest that the level of N-linked glycosylated IGF1R/IR heterodimeric receptor is highly associated with sensitivity to anti-IGF1R antibody in cancer cells.

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          Most cited references 43

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          Empirical statistical model to estimate the accuracy of peptide identifications made by MS/MS and database search.

          We present a statistical model to estimate the accuracy of peptide assignments to tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra made by database search applications such as SEQUEST. Employing the expectation maximization algorithm, the analysis learns to distinguish correct from incorrect database search results, computing probabilities that peptide assignments to spectra are correct based upon database search scores and the number of tryptic termini of peptides. Using SEQUEST search results for spectra generated from a sample of known protein components, we demonstrate that the computed probabilities are accurate and have high power to discriminate between correctly and incorrectly assigned peptides. This analysis makes it possible to filter large volumes of MS/MS database search results with predictable false identification error rates and can serve as a common standard by which the results of different research groups are compared.
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            Insulin receptor isoforms and insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor receptor hybrids in physiology and disease.

            In mammals, the insulin receptor (IR) gene has acquired an additional exon, exon 11. This exon may be skipped in a developmental and tissue-specific manner. The IR, therefore, occurs in two isoforms (exon 11 minus IR-A and exon 11 plus IR-B). The most relevant functional difference between these two isoforms is the high affinity of IR-A for IGF-II. IR-A is predominantly expressed during prenatal life. It enhances the effects of IGF-II during embryogenesis and fetal development. It is also significantly expressed in adult tissues, especially in the brain. Conversely, IR-B is predominantly expressed in adult, well-differentiated tissues, including the liver, where it enhances the metabolic effects of insulin. Dysregulation of IR splicing in insulin target tissues may occur in patients with insulin resistance; however, its role in type 2 diabetes is unclear. IR-A is often aberrantly expressed in cancer cells, thus increasing their responsiveness to IGF-II and to insulin and explaining the cancer-promoting effect of hyperinsulinemia observed in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. Aberrant IR-A expression may favor cancer resistance to both conventional and targeted therapies by a variety of mechanisms. Finally, IR isoforms form heterodimers, IR-A/IR-B, and hybrid IR/IGF-IR receptors (HR-A and HR-B). The functional characteristics of such hybrid receptors and their role in physiology, in diabetes, and in malignant cells are not yet fully understood. These receptors seem to enhance cell responsiveness to IGFs.
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              Role of the insulin-like growth factor family in cancer development and progression.

               H Yu,  T. Rohan (2000)
              The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are mitogens that play a pivotal role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The effects of IGFs are mediated through the IGF-I receptor, which is also involved in cell transformation induced by tumor virus proteins and oncogene products. Six IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) can inhibit or enhance the actions of IGFs. These opposing effects are determined by the structures of the binding proteins. The effects of IGFBPs on IGFs are regulated in part by IGFBP proteases. Laboratory studies have shown that IGFs exert strong mitogenic and antiapoptotic actions on various cancer cells. IGFs also act synergistically with other mitogenic growth factors and steroids and antagonize the effect of antiproliferative molecules on cancer growth. The role of IGFs in cancer is supported by epidemiologic studies, which have found that high levels of circulating IGF-I and low levels of IGFBP-3 are associated with increased risk of several common cancers, including those of the prostate, breast, colorectum, and lung. Evidence further suggests that certain lifestyles, such as one involving a high-energy diet, may increase IGF-I levels, a finding that is supported by animal experiments indicating that IGFs may abolish the inhibitory effect of energy restriction on cancer growth. Further investigation of the role of IGFs in linking high energy intake, increased cell proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, and increased cancer risk may provide new insights into the etiology of cancer and lead to new strategies for cancer prevention.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2012
                16 March 2012
                : 7
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                [3 ]WCU Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Science, Graduated School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                [4 ]Department of Pharmacology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                [5 ]Department of Pathology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                [6 ]Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
                University of Munich, Germany
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: JGK MJK YKY HPK JAP ECY TYK. Performed the experiments: JGK MJK. Analyzed the data: JGK MJK HPK JAP SHS DYO SAI YJB ECY TYK SWH. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: TYK ECY JWP GHK KWK DYO SAI YJB. Wrote the paper: JGK MJK ECY TYK.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-21436
                10.1371/journal.pone.0033322
                3306383
                22438913
                Kim et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Biochemistry
                Proteins
                Proteomics
                Medicine
                Diagnostic Medicine
                Pathology
                General Pathology
                Oncology
                Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
                Cancer Treatment
                Cancers and Neoplasms
                Gastrointestinal Tumors

                Uncategorized

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