ABSTRACT This study provides a comprehensive checklist of Odonata species from the protected area of Mananciais da Serra. The survey was conducted in the endangered Atlantic Forest domain at the southern Serra do Mar mountain chain within a well-preserved area in the municipality of Piraquara, state of Paraná, Brazil. Adults and larvae were sampled between June 2017 and March 2020 using different techniques in numerous mesohabitats, including phytotelmata, pools, small streams, and large reservoirs. A total of 1,708 specimens from 9 families, 43 genera and 84 species were sampled resulting in 53 new records for the state of Paraná, almost doubling the known occurrence records for dragonflies and damselflies in that state. Furthermore, two hitherto undescribed females from the genera Planiplax and Heteragrion, four ultimate stadium larvae from Planiplax, Neocordulia, Heteragrion, and Acanthagrion, and five undescribed species were detected, one each from the genera Heteragrion, Progomphus, Brechmorhoga, Erythrodiplax, and Dasythemis. The estimated richness of odonates in this area is greater than 100 species, while the observed richness corresponding to almost 10% of all Odonata species in Brazil, the species-richest country in the world. These results reiterate the need to investigate undersampled areas to improve knowledge on diversity, taxonomy, and distribution of neotropical species. Finally, taxonomic notes for some species, including the rare corduliid Neocordulia mambucabensis Costa & T.C. Santos, 2000, are provided.