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      Curriculum change as transformational learning

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      Teaching in Higher Education
      Informa UK Limited

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            Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

            To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.
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              Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Teaching in Higher Education
                Teaching in Higher Education
                Informa UK Limited
                1356-2517
                1470-1294
                November 17 2023
                June 17 2021
                November 17 2023
                : 28
                : 8
                : 1847-1866
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre for Higher Education Research and Scholarship, Imperial College London, London, UK
                Article
                10.1080/13562517.2021.1940923
                33041a0b-7b2b-405e-ba6d-5d40e083267f
                © 2023

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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