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Materials and Designs for Wireless Epidermal Sensors of Hydration and Strain

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      Most cited references 45

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      Epidermal electronics.

      We report classes of electronic systems that achieve thicknesses, effective elastic moduli, bending stiffnesses, and areal mass densities matched to the epidermis. Unlike traditional wafer-based technologies, laminating such devices onto the skin leads to conformal contact and adequate adhesion based on van der Waals interactions alone, in a manner that is mechanically invisible to the user. We describe systems incorporating electrophysiological, temperature, and strain sensors, as well as transistors, light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, radio frequency inductors, capacitors, oscillators, and rectifying diodes. Solar cells and wireless coils provide options for power supply. We used this type of technology to measure electrical activity produced by the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles and show that the resulting data contain sufficient information for an unusual type of computer game controller.
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        The dielectric properties of biological tissues: I. Literature survey.

        The dielectric properties of tissues have been extracted from the literature of the past five decades and presented in a graphical format. The purpose is to assess the current state of knowledge, expose the gaps there are and provide a basis for the evaluation and analysis of corresponding data from an on-going measurement programme.
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          Ultrathin conformal devices for precise and continuous thermal characterization of human skin.

          Precision thermometry of the skin can, together with other measurements, provide clinically relevant information about cardiovascular health, cognitive state, malignancy and many other important aspects of human physiology. Here, we introduce an ultrathin, compliant skin-like sensor/actuator technology that can pliably laminate onto the epidermis to provide continuous, accurate thermal characterizations that are unavailable with other methods. Examples include non-invasive spatial mapping of skin temperature with millikelvin precision, and simultaneous quantitative assessment of tissue thermal conductivity. Such devices can also be implemented in ways that reveal the time-dynamic influence of blood flow and perfusion on these properties. Experimental and theoretical studies establish the underlying principles of operation, and define engineering guidelines for device design. Evaluation of subtle variations in skin temperature associated with mental activity, physical stimulation and vasoconstriction/dilation along with accurate determination of skin hydration through measurements of thermal conductivity represent some important operational examples.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Advanced Functional Materials
            Adv. Funct. Mater.
            Wiley-Blackwell
            1616301X
            July 2014
            July 2014
            : 24
            : 25
            : 3846-3854
            10.1002/adfm.201303886
            © 2014

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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