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      Natural and bioinspired nanostructured bactericidal surfaces

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          Abstract

          Bacterial antibiotic resistance is becoming more widespread due to excessive use of antibiotics in healthcare and agriculture. At the same time the development of new antibiotics has effectively ground to a hold. Chemical modifications of material surfaces have poor long-term performance in preventing bacterial build-up and hence approaches for realising bactericidal action through physical surface topography have become increasingly important in recent years. The complex nature of the bacteria cell wall interactions with nanostructured surfaces represents many challenges while the design of nanostructured bactericidal surfaces is considered. Here we present a brief overview of the bactericidal behaviour of naturally occurring and bio-inspired nanostructured surfaces against different bacteria through the physico-mechanical rupture of the cell wall. Many parameters affect this process including the size, shape, density, rigidity/flexibility and surface chemistry of the surface nanotextures as well as factors such as bacteria specificity (e.g. gram positive and gram negative) and motility. Different fabrication methods for such bactericidal nanostructured surfaces are summarised.

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          Highlights

          • Several natural nanostructured surfaces can kill bacteria in contact with them.

          • Bactericidal efficacy of bio-inspired nanostructured surfaces has been demonstrated.

          • Contact killing mechanism of bacteria on nanostructured surfaces not understood

          • Optimal geometry and density of nanostructures for killing bacteria unknown

          • Cost effective fabrication for large area bactericidal surfaces is important.

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          Most cited references91

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          Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.

          The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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            Biofilm formation in Staphylococcus implant infections. A review of molecular mechanisms and implications for biofilm-resistant materials.

            Implant infections in orthopaedics, as well as in many other medical fields, are chiefly caused by staphylococci. The ability of growing within a biofilm enhances the chances of staphylococci to protect themselves from host defences, antibiotic therapies, and biocides. Advances in scientific knowledge on structural molecules (exopolysaccharide, proteins, teichoic acids, and the most recently described extracellular DNA), on the synthesis and genetics of staphylococcal biofilms, and on the complex network of signal factors that intervene in their control are here presented, also reporting on the emerging strategies to disrupt or inhibit them. The attitude of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages to infiltrate and phagocytise biofilms, as well as the ambiguous behaviour exhibited by these innate immune cells in biofilm-related implant infections, are here discussed. Research on anti-biofilm biomaterials is focused, reviewing materials loaded with antibacterial substances, or coated with anti-adhesive/anti-bacterial immobilized agents, or surfaced with nanostructures. Latter approaches appear promising, since they avoid the spread of antibacterial substances in the neighbouring tissues with the consequent risk of inducing bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Natural bactericidal surfaces: mechanical rupture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells by cicada wings.

              Natural superhydrophobic surfaces are often thought to have antibiofouling potential due to their self-cleaning properties. However, when incubated on cicada wings, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells are not repelled; instead they are penetrated by the nanopillar arrays present on the wing surface, resulting in bacterial cell death. Cicada wings are effective antibacterial, as opposed to antibiofouling, surfaces. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Adv Colloid Interface Sci
                Adv Colloid Interface Sci
                Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
                Elsevier
                0001-8686
                1873-3727
                1 October 2017
                October 2017
                : 248
                : 85-104
                Affiliations
                [a ]School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, UK
                [b ]Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India
                [c ]School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS1 2LY, UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. wuge.briscoe@ 123456bristol.ac.uk
                Article
                S0001-8686(16)30354-2
                10.1016/j.cis.2017.07.030
                6643001
                28780961
                3318a6fc-05d9-4d8c-a98c-133e69fab831
                © 2017 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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