Purpose: To evaluate anatomical and visual outcomes following intravitreal dexamethasone implantation (Ozurdex) in eyes with visual loss due to macular edema (ME) secondary to retinal vein occlusion (RVO) and to identify predictive factors for improvement in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed medical records of 43 consecutive eyes with treatment-naïve ME secondary to recent onset RVO treated with repeated Ozurdex injections on a pro re nata basis. Results: The mean follow-up (FU) duration was 14 months (min. 12, max. 22). Both mean BCVA and central macular thickness improved significantly at the end of the FU period (p = 0.0001), and more than 30% of the eyes gained ≥3 lines within 3 months of repeated injections. Presence of foveal serous retinal detachment and macular ischemia were negatively associated with visual outcomes. Improvements were significantly associated with baseline BCVA and the integrity of the ellipsoid zone. No serious adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: In our study population, Ozurdex was a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of ME associated with RVO. The results suggest that a comprehensive approach in the examination of RVO eyes may help to predict which patients are most likely to benefit from the treatment.