To evaluate the long-term results of balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for the treatment of gastric varices (GV) and hepatic encephalopathy. A total of 43 patients who had undergone B-RTO were evaluated, 32 with GV, two with hepatic encephalopathy, and nine with both. All but one had been consecutively followed up with gastrointestinal endoscopy for more than 1 year (3-60 months; mean, 30.44 months). Collateral veins of gastric varices were graded using balloon-occluded retrograde left adrenal venography. The relation of both worsening of esophageal varices (EV) and improved Child-Pugh score after B-RTO to the grades of collateral vein development was analyzed. The relapse-free survival and the prognostic factors for survival after B-RTO were also assessed. GV disappeared or decreased markedly in size, and hepatic encephalopathy was completely cured in all patients. Improvement in Child-Pugh score was observed in 21 patient (50.0%) 6 months after B-RTO, but in only 11 patients (25.6%) 1 year after B-RTO. Worsening of EV was seen in eight patients and was related to a worsened grade of collateral veins. Cumulative relapse-free survival rate was 90.8% at 1 year and 87.4% at 3 years after B-RTO. The most significant prognostic factor was Child-Pugh classification (relative risk: 4.16) B-RTO is a safe and effective treatment for patients with GV and hepatic encephalopathy. The most important prognostic factors are the extent of Child-Pugh classification.