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      p-TSA-promoted syntheses of 5H-benzo[h] thiazolo[2,3-b]quinazoline and indeno[1,2-d] thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine analogs: molecular modeling and in vitro antitumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma

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          Abstract

          In our efforts to address the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we have made a commitment to the synthesis of novel molecules to combat Hep-G2 cells. A facile and highly efficient one-pot, multicomponent reaction has been successfully devised utilizing a p-toluenesulfonic acid ( p-TSA)-catalyzed domino Knoevenagel/Michael/intramolecular cyclization approach for the synthesis of novel 5H-benzo[h]thiazolo[2,3-b]quinazoline and indeno[1,2-d] thiazolo[3,2-a]pyrimidine analogs bearing a bridgehead nitrogen atom. This domino protocol constructed one new ring by the concomitant formation of multiple bonds (C–C, C–N, and C=N) involving multiple steps without the use of any metal catalysts in one-pot, with all reactants effi-ciently exploited. All the newly synthesized compounds were authenticated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, together with elemental analysis, and their antitumor activity was evaluated in vitro on a Hep-G2 human cancer cell line by sulforhodamine B assay. Computational molecular modeling studies were carried out on cancer-related targets, including interleukin-2, interleukin-6, Caspase-3, and Caspase-8. Two compounds (4A and 6A) showed growth inhibitory activity comparable to the positive control Adriamycin, with growth inhibition of 50% <10 μg/mL. The results of the comprehensive structure–activity relationship study confirmed the assumption that two or more electronegative groups on the phenyl ring attached to the thiazolo[2,3-b]quinazoline system showed the optimum effect. The in silico simulations suggested crucial hydrogen bond and π–π stacking interactions, with a good ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) profile and molecular dynamics, in order to explore the molecular targets of HCC which were in complete agreement with the in vitro findings. Considering their significant anticancer activity, 4A and 6A are potential drug candidates for the management of HCC.

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          Most cited references 52

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          FAF-Drugs2: Free ADME/tox filtering tool to assist drug discovery and chemical biology projects

          Background Drug discovery and chemical biology are exceedingly complex and demanding enterprises. In recent years there are been increasing awareness about the importance of predicting/optimizing the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) properties of small chemical compounds along the search process rather than at the final stages. Fast methods for evaluating ADMET properties of small molecules often involve applying a set of simple empirical rules (educated guesses) and as such, compound collections' property profiling can be performed in silico. Clearly, these rules cannot assess the full complexity of the human body but can provide valuable information and assist decision-making. Results This paper presents FAF-Drugs2, a free adaptable tool for ADMET filtering of electronic compound collections. FAF-Drugs2 is a command line utility program (e.g., written in Python) based on the open source chemistry toolkit OpenBabel, which performs various physicochemical calculations, identifies key functional groups, some toxic and unstable molecules/functional groups. In addition to filtered collections, FAF-Drugs2 can provide, via Gnuplot, several distribution diagrams of major physicochemical properties of the screened compound libraries. Conclusion We have developed FAF-Drugs2 to facilitate compound collection preparation, prior to (or after) experimental screening or virtual screening computations. Users can select to apply various filtering thresholds and add rules as needed for a given project. As it stands, FAF-Drugs2 implements numerous filtering rules (23 physicochemical rules and 204 substructure searching rules) that can be easily tuned.
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            N-(cycloalkylamino)acyl-2-aminothiazole inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinase 2. N-[5-[[[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-oxazolyl]methyl]thio]-2-thiazolyl]-4- piperidinecarboxamide (BMS-387032), a highly efficacious and selective antitumor agent.

            N-Acyl-2-aminothiazoles with nonaromatic acyl side chains containing a basic amine were found to be potent, selective inhibitors of CDK2/cycE which exhibit antitumor activity in mice. In particular, compound 21 [N-[5-[[[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-oxazolyl]methyl]thio]-2-thiazolyl]-4-piperidinecarboxamide, BMS-387032], has been identified as an ATP-competitive and CDK2-selective inhibitor which has been selected to enter Phase 1 human clinical trials as an antitumor agent. In a cell-free enzyme assay, 21 showed a CDK2/cycE IC(50) = 48 nM and was 10- and 20-fold selective over CDK1/cycB and CDK4/cycD, respectively. It was also highly selective over a panel of 12 unrelated kinases. Antiproliferative activity was established in an A2780 cellular cytotoxicity assay in which 21 showed an IC(50) = 95 nM. Metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies showed that 21 exhibited a plasma half-life of 5-7 h in three species and moderately low protein binding in both mouse (69%) and human (63%) serum. Dosed orally to mouse, rat, and dog, 21 showed 100%, 31%, and 28% bioavailability, respectively. As an antitumor agent in mice, 21 administered at its maximum-tolerated dose exhibited a clearly superior efficacy profile when compared to flavopiridol in both an ip/ip P388 murine tumor model and in a s.c./i.p. A2780 human ovarian carcinoma xenograft model.
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              Synthesis and antiplasmodial activity of new 4-aryl-2-trichloromethylquinazolines.

              A series of original 4-aryl-substituted 2-trichloromethylquinazoline derivatives was synthesized using a microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling approach. Antiplasmodial activity was evaluated on both chloroquino-resistant and -sensitive Plasmodium falciparum strains, and the selectivity indexes for THP1 and HepG2 human cells were also calculated, revealing their antiplasmodial potential.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                29 May 2017
                : 11
                : 1623-1642
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
                [2 ]Department of Pharmacy, Birla Institute of Technology & Science Pilani, Hyderabad Campus, Hyderabad, Telangana State
                [3 ]Centre of Biomedical Research (CBMR), Sanjay Gandhi Post-Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences Campus, Raebareli Road, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sudipta Saha, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Vidya Vihar, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226025, Uttar Pradesh, India, Tel +91 80 9074 7008, Email sudiptapharm@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                dddt-11-1623
                10.2147/DDDT.S136692
                5459977
                © 2017 Keshari et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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