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      miR-16 family induces cell cycle arrest by regulating multiple cell cycle genes

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          Abstract

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are thought to be involved in diverse biological processes by regulating gene expression. Numerous miRNAs have been identified in various species, and many more miRNAs remain to be detected. Generally, hundreds of mRNAs have been predicted to be potential targets of one miRNA, so it is a great challenge to identify the genuine miRNA targets. Here, we generated the cell lines depleted of Drosha protein and screened dozens of transcripts (including Cyclin D1) regulated potentially by miRNA-mediated RNA silencing pathway. On the basis of miRNA expressing library, we established a miRNA targets reverse screening method by using luciferase reporter assay. By this method, we found that the expression of Cyclin D1 (CCND1) was regulated by miR-16 family directly, and miR-16 induced G1 arrest in A549 cells partially by CCND1. Furthermore, several other cell cycle genes were revealed to be regulated by miR-16 family, including Cyclin D3 (CCND3), Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and CDK6. Taken together, our data suggests that miR-16 family triggers an accumulation of cells in G0/G1 by silencing multiple cell cycle genes simultaneously, rather than the individual target.

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          Most cited references 27

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          MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing.

           V Kim (2005)
          The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) took many by surprise because of their unorthodox features and widespread functions. These tiny, approximately 22-nucleotide, RNAs control several pathways including developmental timing, haematopoiesis, organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and possibly even tumorigenesis. Among the most pressing questions regarding this unusual class of regulatory miRNA-encoding genes is how miRNAs are produced in cells and how the genes themselves are controlled by various regulatory networks.
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            Nuclear export of microRNA precursors.

            MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which function as regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, are processed from larger transcripts by sequential action of nuclear and cytoplasmic ribonuclease III-like endonucleases. We show that Exportin-5 (Exp5) mediates efficient nuclear export of short miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs) and that its depletion by RNA interference results in reduced miRNA levels. Exp5 binds correctly processed pre-miRNAs directly and specifically, in a Ran guanosine triphosphate-dependent manner, but interacts only weakly with extended pre-miRNAs that yield incorrect miRNAs when processed by Dicer in vitro. Thus, Exp5 is key to miRNA biogenesis and may help coordinate nuclear and cytoplasmic processing steps.
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              A simplified system for generating recombinant adenoviruses.

              Recombinant adenoviruses provide a versatile system for gene expression studies and therapeutic applications. We report herein a strategy that simplifies the generation and production of such viruses. A recombinant adenoviral plasmid is generated with a minimum of enzymatic manipulations, using homologous recombination in bacteria rather than in eukaryotic cells. After transfections of such plasmids into a mammalian packaging cell line, viral production is conveniently followed with the aid of green fluorescent protein, encoded by a gene incorporated into the viral backbone. Homogeneous viruses can be obtained from this procedure without plaque purification. This system should expedite the process of generating and testing recombinant adenoviruses for a variety of purposes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                September 2008
                13 August 2008
                13 August 2008
                : 36
                : 16
                : 5391-5404
                Affiliations
                Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850, People's Republic of China
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Fax: +86 10 68214653; Email: xfzheng100@ 123456126.com

                The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first two authors should be regarded as joint First Authors.

                Article
                gkn522
                10.1093/nar/gkn522
                2532718
                18701644
                3325fc4c-1fba-440a-905a-ef8333fc5cf8
                © 2008 The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                RNA

                Genetics

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