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      Short-term adaptation to sound statistics is unimpaired in developmental dyslexia

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      1 , 2 , * , 3 , *

      PLoS ONE

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          Abstract

          Developmental dyslexia is presumed to arise from phonological impairments. Accordingly, people with dyslexia show speech perception deficits taken as indication of impoverished phonological representations. However, the nature of speech perception deficits in those with dyslexia remains elusive. Specifically, there is no agreement as to whether speech perception deficits arise from speech-specific processing impairments, or from general auditory impairments that might be either specific to temporal processing or more general. Recent studies show that general auditory referents such as Long Term Average Spectrum (LTAS, the distribution of acoustic energy across the duration of a sound sequence) affect speech perception. Here we examine the impact of preceding target sounds’ LTAS on phoneme categorization to assess the nature of putative general auditory impairments associated with dyslexia. Dyslexic and typical listeners categorized speech targets varying perceptually from /ga/-/da/ preceded by speech and nonspeech tone contexts varying. Results revealed a spectrally contrastive influence of the preceding context LTAS on speech categorization, with a larger magnitude effect for nonspeech compared to speech precursors. Importantly, there was no difference in the presence or magnitude of the effects across dyslexia and control groups. These results demonstrate an aspect of general auditory processing that is spared in dyslexia, available to support phonemic processing when speech is presented in context.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Auditory temporal perception, phonics, and reading disabilities in children.

           P Tallal (1980)
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            Specific reading disability (dyslexia): what have we learned in the past four decades?

            We summarize some of the most important findings from research evaluating the hypothesized causes of specific reading disability ('dyslexia') over the past four decades. After outlining components of reading ability, we discuss manifest causes of reading difficulties, in terms of deficiencies in component reading skills that might lead to such difficulties. The evidence suggests that inadequate facility in word identification due, in most cases, to more basic deficits in alphabetic coding is the basic cause of difficulties in learning to read. We next discuss hypothesized deficiencies in reading-related cognitive abilities as underlying causes of deficiencies in component reading skills. The evidence in these areas suggests that, in most cases, phonological skills deficiencies associated with phonological coding deficits are the probable causes of the disorder rather than visual, semantic, or syntactic deficits, although reading difficulties in some children may be associated with general language deficits. Hypothesized deficits in general learning abilities (e.g., attention, association learning, cross-modal transfer etc.) and low-level sensory deficits have weak validity as causal factors in specific reading disability. These inferences are, by and large, supported by research evaluating the biological foundations of dyslexia. Finally, evidence is presented in support of the idea that many poor readers are impaired because of inadequate instruction or other experiential factors. This does not mean that biological factors are not relevant, because the brain and environment interact to produce the neural networks that support reading acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical implications of the research findings, focusing on the need for enhanced instruction.
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              What phonological deficit?

              We review a series of experiments aimed at understanding the nature of the phonological deficit in developmental dyslexia. These experiments investigate input and output phonological representations, phonological grammar, foreign speech perception and production, and unconscious speech processing and lexical access. Our results converge on the observation that the phonological representations of people with dyslexia may be intact, and that the phonological deficit surfaces only as a function of certain task requirements, notably short-term memory, conscious awareness, and time constraints. In an attempt to reformulate those task requirements more economically, we propose that individuals with dyslexia have a deficit in access to phonological representations. We discuss the explanatory power of this concept and we speculate that a similar notion might also adequately describe the nature of other associated cognitive deficits when present.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                7 June 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Special Education, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
                [2 ] Edmond J. Safra Brain Research Center for the Study of Learning Disabilities, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
                [3 ] Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Psychology, Pittsburgh, United States of America
                Universidad de Salamanca, SPAIN
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Article
                PONE-D-18-09026
                10.1371/journal.pone.0198146
                5991687
                29879142
                332d1379-ef13-47e4-ac8d-8a8a8a07351b
                © 2018 Gabay, Holt

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Pages: 16
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000002, National Institutes of Health;
                Award ID: R01DC004674
                Award Recipient :
                The research was supported by a grant from the National Institutes of Health (R01DC004674) to LLH.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Social Sciences
                Linguistics
                Speech
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Science
                Cognitive Neuroscience
                Learning Disabilities
                Dyslexia
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Cognitive Neuroscience
                Learning Disabilities
                Dyslexia
                Social Sciences
                Linguistics
                Grammar
                Phonology
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Sensory Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Social Sciences
                Linguistics
                Grammar
                Phonology
                Syllables
                Physical Sciences
                Physics
                Acoustics
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Ophthalmology
                Visual Impairments
                Social Sciences
                Linguistics
                Grammar
                Phonology
                Phonemes
                Custom metadata
                All data files are available at DOI: 10.1184/R1/6025262.

                Uncategorized

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