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      Sub-lethal effects of a copper sulfate fungicide on development and reproduction in three coccinellid species.


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          Copper-based fungicides reliably control various foliar diseases in citrus production, although they are suspected to exacerbate mite problems through various mechanisms. Studies have shown negative effects of various copper formulations on entomopathogenic fungi, nematodes, and parasitoids, but few have sought to measure its impact on the biology of predatory insects. We exposed the larvae of three species of ladybeetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to field rates of copper sulfate in combination with petroleum oil, a formulation commonly applied in Florida citrus. First instar larvae of Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, Harmonia axyridis Pallas, and Olla v-nigrum Mulsant received a 24 h exposure to residues on Petri dishes, and another 24 h exposure in the third instar. Treated larvae of all three species survived to adulthood at the same rate as control larvae, but larvae of O. v-nigrum experienced a significant increase in developmental time. Female adults of C. coeruleus and H. axyridis receiving copper sulfate exposures as larvae did not differ from control adults in pre-reproductive period, fecundity or fertility over ten days of reproduction. Treated O. v-nigrum females had significantly longer pre-reproductive periods than control females and laid significantly fewer eggs, although egg fertility was equivalent. We conclude that copper-sulfate fungicides are unlikely to disrupt biological control processes in citrus groves that are mediated by these coccinellid beetles.

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          Invasion of the Florida Citrus Ecosystem byHarmonia axyridis(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Asymmetric Competition with a Native Species,Cycloneda sanguinea

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            Elevated copper levels during larval development cause altered locomotor behavior in the adult carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus L. (Coleoptera: Carbidae).

            It is generally believed that copper causes changes in carabid communities indirectly by reducing food availability, because these animals are frequently found to have only slightly elevated metal contents even close to pollution sources. Using computer-centered video tracking, the locomotor behavior of adult Pterostichus cupreus carabid beetles was quantified after being raised on copper-contaminated food and soil during larval development. Copper was found to have an acute toxic effect measured in larval mortality, to cause a slight increase in the developmental period of males, but not to effect the emergence weights of adults of either sex. This toxic effect on the larvae was preserved through pupation to the surviving adults, which were normal in size and appearance, but displayed a dramatically depressed locomotor behavior. Copper analysis of these adults revealed that copper levels were either the same as or only slightly elevated in comparison with controls. The findings suggest that the altered locomotor behavior is associated with copper-induced internal structural damage during larval development and therefore expresses a prolonged or permanent effect. Such changes in locomotor behavior are likely to reduce the fitness of the animal under field conditions.
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              Responses of two ladybeetles to eight fungicides used in Florida citrus: Implications for biological control

              Two ladybeetles, Cycloneda sanguinea and Harmonia axyridis, were exposed in the laboratory to eight fungicide formulations commonly used in citrus production in Florida. Both benomyl and the combination of copper and petroleum oil proved toxic to larvae of C. sanguinea that were exposed to concentrations corresponding to recommended field rates, either as leaf residues or in topical spray applications. Larvae of C. sanguinea also suffered significant mortality when exposed to neem oil as a leaf residue, but not after topical application. Larvae of H. axyridis exposed to these compounds completed development with the same success as control larvae in all trials. However, H. axyridis larvae exhibited slower development following exposure to leaf residues of ferbam applied at twice the recommended rate. Exposure to azoxystrobin as a leaf residue at twice the recommended concentration resulted in accelerated larval development in both species. No compounds appeared repellent to adult beetles of either species. Adult beetles of both species were observed resting on portions of filter paper treated with fosetyl-Al more often than on untreated, control portions. Azoxystrobin, ferbam and mefenoxam similarly arrested the movement of adult C. sanguinea, whereas benomyl and the copper and petroleum oil combination arrested the movement of adult H. axyridis. The differential sensitivity of the two coccinellid species is discussed in the context of the potential displacement of the indigenous C. sanguinea by the invasive H. axyridis.

                Author and article information

                J Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Arizona Library
                13 June 2003
                : 3
                : 16
                [1 ]Kansas State University, Agricultural Research Center – Hays, 1232 240 th Ave, Hays, KS, 67601 jpmi@ 123456ksu.edu
                Copyright © 2003. Open access; copyright is maintained by the authors.
                : 29 April 2003
                : 27 May 2003

                copper sulfate,curinus coeruleus,development,harmonia axyridis,olla v-nigrum,reproduction
                copper sulfate, curinus coeruleus, development, harmonia axyridis, olla v-nigrum, reproduction


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