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      Diseases of Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) in China: Curvularia nanningensis sp. nov.

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          Five Curvularia strains isolated from diseased leaves of lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) in Guangxi Province, China, were examined. NCBI-Blast searches of ITS sequences suggested a high degree of similarity (99–100%) to Curvularia akaii , C. akaiiensis , C. bothriochloae , C. heteropogonis and C. sichuanensis . To accurately identify these strains, we further analysed their morphology and phylogenetic relationships based on combinations of ITS, GAPDH, and tef1 gene sequences. Morphological observations indicated that the key character differing from similar species was conidial size, whereas phylogenetic analyses indicated that the five strains represent one species that is also distinct from C. akaii , C. akaiiensis and C. bothriochloae by conidial size and conidiophore length. Thus, the strains examined are found to represent a new species described herein as Curvularia nanningensis . The pathogenicity test on the host and detached leaves confirmed the new species to be pathogenic on Cymbopogon citratus leaves. Standardised requirements for reliable identification of Curvularia pathogens are also proposed.

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          The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum-wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits.

          We present a 6-gene, 420-species maximum-likelihood phylogeny of Ascomycota, the largest phylum of Fungi. This analysis is the most taxonomically complete to date with species sampled from all 15 currently circumscribed classes. A number of superclass-level nodes that have previously evaded resolution and were unnamed in classifications of the Fungi are resolved for the first time. Based on the 6-gene phylogeny we conducted a phylogenetic informativeness analysis of all 6 genes and a series of ancestral character state reconstructions that focused on morphology of sporocarps, ascus dehiscence, and evolution of nutritional modes and ecologies. A gene-by-gene assessment of phylogenetic informativeness yielded higher levels of informativeness for protein genes (RPB1, RPB2, and TEF1) as compared with the ribosomal genes, which have been the standard bearer in fungal systematics. Our reconstruction of sporocarp characters is consistent with 2 origins for multicellular sexual reproductive structures in Ascomycota, once in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina and once in the common ancestor of Neolectomycetes. This first report of dual origins of ascomycete sporocarps highlights the complicated nature of assessing homology of morphological traits across Fungi. Furthermore, ancestral reconstruction supports an open sporocarp with an exposed hymenium (apothecium) as the primitive morphology for Pezizomycotina with multiple derivations of the partially (perithecia) or completely enclosed (cleistothecia) sporocarps. Ascus dehiscence is most informative at the class level within Pezizomycotina with most superclass nodes reconstructed equivocally. Character-state reconstructions support a terrestrial, saprobic ecology as ancestral. In contrast to previous studies, these analyses support multiple origins of lichenization events with the loss of lichenization as less frequent and limited to terminal, closely related species.
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            Cochliobolus Phylogenetics and the Origin of Known, Highly Virulent Pathogens, Inferred from ITS and Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene Sequences

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              A phylogenetic and taxonomic re-evaluation of the Bipolaris - Cochliobolus - Curvularia Complex


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                13 February 2020
                : 63
                : 49-67
                [1 ] Department of Plant Pathology, Agriculture College, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou Province, 550025, China
                [2 ] Department of Practaculture Science, Animal Science College, Guizhou University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550025, China
                [3 ] Center for Yunnan Plateau Biological Resources Protection and Utilization, College of Biological Resource and Food Engineering, Qujing Normal University, Qujing, Yunnan 655011, China
                [4 ] Center of Excellence in Fungal Research and School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand
                [5 ] Key Laboratory of Green Pesticide and Agricultural Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yong Wang ( yongwangbis@ 123456aliyun.com ), Zhuo Chen ( gychenzhuo@ 123456aliyun.com )

                Academic editor: Huzefa Raja

                Qian Zhang, Zai-Fu Yang, Wei Cheng, Nalin N. Wijayawardene, Kevin D. Hyde, Zhuo Chen, Yong Wang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                This research is supported by the projects, viz. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31560489, 31972222), Science and technology basic work of MOST [2014FY120100], National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2014BAD23B03/03), Talent project of Guizhou science and technology cooperation platform ([2017]5788-5 and [2019]5641) and Guizhou science, technology department international cooperation base project ([2018]5806).
                Research Article
                Anamorphic Fungi
                Molecular Systematics


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