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      Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Contrasting Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) Varieties to PEG-Induced Osmotic Stress

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          Abstract

          Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1.2 MPa polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) treatments for 15 days. The results showed that the levels of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2), hydroxyl free radical (OH ) and superoxide anion free radical (O 2 •-) in both varieties were significantly increased, while the root activity, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and the ratios of reduced/oxidized ascorbate (AsA/DHA) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) were significantly decreased. The soluble protein and soluble sugar contents, the total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) first increased and then decreased with the increase in treatment days. Under osmotic stress, Longzhong exhibited lower levels of MDA, H 2O 2, OH and O 2 •- but higher levels of SOD, CAT, APX, T-AOC and ratios of AsA/DHA and GSH/GSSG compared with Gannong No.3. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ), 142 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs) were identified from two alfalfa varieties, including 52 proteins (34 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in Longzhong, 71 proteins (28 up-regulated and 43 down-regulated) in Gannong No. 3, and 19 proteins (13 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated) shared by both varieties. Most of these DAPs were involved in stress and defense, protein metabolism, transmembrane transport, signal transduction, as well as cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism. In conclusion, the stronger drought-tolerance of Longzhong was attributed to its higher osmotic adjustment capacity, greater ability to orchestrate its enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems and thus avoid great oxidative damage in comparison to Gannong No. 3. Moreover, the involvement of other pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, ROS detoxification, secondary metabolism, protein processing, ion and water transport, signal transduction, and cell wall adjustment, are important mechanisms for conferring drought tolerance in alfalfa.

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          Most cited references114

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          Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies

          Plant and Soil, 39(1), 205-207
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              Gene networks involved in drought stress response and tolerance.

              Plants respond to survive under water-deficit conditions via a series of physiological, cellular, and molecular processes culminating in stress tolerance. Many drought-inducible genes with various functions have been identified by molecular and genomic analyses in Arabidopsis, rice, and other plants, including a number of transcription factors that regulate stress-inducible gene expression. The products of stress-inducible genes function both in the initial stress response and in establishing plant stress tolerance. In this short review, recent progress resulting from analysis of gene expression during the drought-stress response in plants as well as in elucidating the functions of genes implicated in the stress response and/or stress tolerance are summarized. A description is also provided of how various genes involved in stress tolerance were applied in genetic engineering of dehydration stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                28 February 2018
                2018
                : 9
                : 242
                Affiliations
                College of Grassland Science, Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecosystem (Ministry of Education), Pratacultural Engineering Laboratory of Gansu Province, Sino-U.S. Centers for Grazing Land Ecosystem Sustainability, Gansu Agricultural University , Lanzhou, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Dominique Job, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), France

                Reviewed by: Georgia Tanou, Hellenic Agricultural Organization – ELGO, Greece; Niranjan Chakraborty, National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), India

                This article was submitted to Plant Proteomics, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2018.00242
                5835757
                29410674
                334261e5-cb3d-412b-b870-fcf918901a74
                Copyright © 2018 Zhang and Shi.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 23 November 2017
                : 12 February 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 136, Pages: 21, Words: 0
                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Agriculture of the People’s Republic of China 10.13039/501100004573
                Award ID: No. NB2130135
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                alfalfa,progressive osmotic stress,physiological changes,itraq-based proteomics,drought-responsive protein,roots

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