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      The coexpression of multi-immune inhibitory receptors on T lymphocytes in primary non-small-cell lung cancer

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          Abstract

          Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a common disease threatening the health of humankind. It has a low survival rate and a poor prognosis. Under normal circumstances, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) play the main role in the antitumor process, but studies in recent years have found that NSCLC is capable of releasing various immunosuppressive factors, inducing the TILs to exhibit high expression of immune inhibitory receptors and relevant immunosuppressive factors. They can not only activate their own signal pathways but also block those of TILs, which causes inefficiency of tumor destruction. Researchers have now developed targeted drugs that specifically bind to immunosuppression receptors. By blocking signal transmission of immune inhibitory receptors, restraint on T lymphocytes can be released to recover antitumor role. Further research and understanding of the immunosuppression signal pathways of NSCLC are of significant importance to promote the development of immune-targeted drugs and the formulation of new treatment plans. This paper summarizes the immunosuppressive mechanisms of multiple important and newly discovered immune inhibitory receptors on T lymphocytes and immunosuppressive factors released by NSCLC cells, and their influence on patients’ survival rate and prognosis. Further laboratory and clinical studies on immune-targeted drugs for primary NSCLC are needed to provide more evidence.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases.

          The non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, has an important role in signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptor signalling and was the first reported oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase. Activating mutations of SHP2 have been associated with developmental pathologies such as Noonan syndrome and are found in multiple cancer types, including leukaemia, lung and breast cancer and neuroblastoma. SHP2 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cell survival and proliferation primarily through activation of the RAS–ERK signalling pathway. It is also a key mediator of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) immune checkpoint pathways. Reduction of SHP2 activity suppresses tumour cell growth and is a potential target of cancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent (IC50 = 0.071 μM), selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule SHP2 inhibitor, SHP099, that stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation. SHP099 concurrently binds to the interface of the N-terminal SH2, C-terminal SH2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains, thus inhibiting SHP2 activity through an allosteric mechanism. SHP099 suppresses RAS–ERK signalling to inhibit the proliferation of receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven human cancer cells in vitro and is efficacious in mouse tumour xenograft models. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers.
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            The PD1:PD-L1/2 Pathway from Discovery to Clinical Implementation

            The immune system maintains a critically organized network to defend against foreign particles, while evading self-reactivity simultaneously. T lymphocytes function as effectors and play an important regulatory role to orchestrate the immune signals. Although central tolerance mechanism results in the removal of the most of the autoreactive T cells during thymic selection, a fraction of self-reactive lymphocytes escapes to the periphery and pose a threat to cause autoimmunity. The immune system evolved various mechanisms to constrain such autoreactive T cells and maintain peripheral tolerance, including T cell anergy, deletion, and suppression by regulatory T cells (TRegs). These effects are regulated by a complex network of stimulatory and inhibitory receptors expressed on T cells and their ligands, which deliver cell-to-cell signals that dictate the outcome of T cell encountering with cognate antigens. Among the inhibitory immune mediators, the pathway consisting of the programed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor (CD279) and its ligands PD-L1 (B7-H1, CD274) and PD-L2 (B7-DC, CD273) plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance and for the maintenance of the stability and the integrity of T cells. However, the PD-1:PD-L1/L2 pathway also mediates potent inhibitory signals to hinder the proliferation and function of T effector cells and have inimical effects on antiviral and antitumor immunity. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway has resulted in successful enhancement of T cell immunity against viral pathogens and tumors. Here, we will provide a brief overview on the properties of the components of the PD-1 pathway, the signaling events regulated by PD-1 engagement, and their consequences on the function of T effector cells.
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              T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) receptor/poliovirus receptor (PVR) ligand engagement suppresses interferon-γ production of natural killer cells via β-arrestin 2-mediated negative signaling.

              Natural killer (NK) cell activation is well orchestrated by a wide array of NK cell receptor repertoire. T-cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) receptor was recently defined as an inhibitory receptor that is expressed on NK cells and T cells. TIGIT receptor/poliovirus receptor (PVR) ligand engagement signaling inhibits cytotoxicity mediated by NK and CD8(+) T cells. However, it is unclear how TIGIT/PVR signaling regulates cytokine secretion in NK cells. Here we show that TIGIT/PVR engagement suppresses interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production of NK cells. TIGIT transgenic NK cells generate less IFN-γ undergoing TIGIT/PVR ligation. Moreover, TIGIT knock-out NK cells produce much more IFN-γ. TIGIT/PVR ligation signaling mediates suppression of IFN-γ production via the NF-κB pathway. We identified a novel adaptor β-arrestin 2 that associates with phosphorylated TIGIT for further recruitment of SHIP1 (SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 1) through the ITT-like motif. Importantly, SHIP1, but not other phosphatases, impairs the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) autoubiquitination to abolish NF-κB activation, leading to suppression of IFN-γ production in NK cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                28 November 2017
                : 11
                : 3367-3376
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Peng Luo; Xin Chen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 253 Gongye Road, Guangzhou 510282, People’s Republic of China, Email luopeng@ 123456smu.edu.cn ; chen_xin1020@ 123456163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-11-3367
                10.2147/DDDT.S148443
                5713689
                © 2017 Guo et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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