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      Infección in vitro de cepas de Beauveria spp. sobre Globodera rostochiensis Wollenweber (1923) Translated title: In vitro infection of Beauveria spp. on Globodera rostochiensis Wollenweber (1923)

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          Abstract

          Resumen El nematodo dorado Globodera rostochiensis es uno de los principales problemas en el cultivo de la papa (Solanum tuberosum L.), sus quistes pueden permanecer viables en el suelo hasta por treinta años. Para su control se utilizan nematicidas químicos, sin embargo, los bioplaguicidas son una alternativa eficaz en el control de plagas agrícolas. Se aislaron y evaluaron cuatro cepas del hongo Beauveria spp. a concentraciones de 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106 sobre quistes de G. rostochiensis. La infección se registró a las 72 h con todas las concentraciones, de todas las cepas, sin embargo, la RH4 fue la única que infectó al nematodo en el estadio de huevo en todas las concentraciones. A las 96 horas se observó infección en las diferentes cepas, excepto la U9 que infectó hasta las 120 h. Comprobando con esto que Beauveria spp. puede ser utilizado para el control de G. rostochiensis.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract The golden nematode Globodera rostochiensis is one of the main problems in the potato crop (Solanum tuberosum L.); its cysts can remain viable in the soil for up to 30 years. Chemical nematicides are used for its control; however, biopesticides are an effective alternative in the control of agricultural pests. Four strains of the fungus Beauveria spp. were isolated and evaluated at concentrations of 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106 on cysts of G. rostochiensis. 72 h since the process began, the infection was observed on the cysts in all dilutions and all strains, but RH4 strain was the only one that infected the nematode in the egg stage at all concentrations. After 96 hours, infection was observed in the different strains on the juveniles, except the U9 that presented infection after 120 h. This proves that Beauveria spp. can be used for the control of G. rostochiensis.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

          Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already approved pesticides and the approval of the new compounds in the near future. Thus, new tools or techniques with greater reliability than those already existing are needed to predict the potential hazards of pesticides and thus contribute to reduction of the adverse effects on human health and the environment. On the other hand, the implementation of alternative cropping systems that are less dependent on pesticides, the development of new pesticides with novel modes of action and improved safety profiles, and the improvement of the already used pesticide formulations towards safer formulations (e.g., microcapsule suspensions) could reduce the adverse effects of farming and particularly the toxic effects of pesticides. In addition, the use of appropriate and well-maintained spraying equipment along with taking all precautions that are required in all stages of pesticide handling could minimize human exposure to pesticides and their potential adverse effects on the environment.
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            Methods for the Recovery and Counting of Cysts of Heterodera schachtii from Soil

             D. Fenwick (1940)
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              Occurrence and diversity of insect-associated fungi in natural soils in China

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                au
                Acta universitaria
                Acta univ
                Universidad de Guanajuato, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado (México, Guanajuato, Mexico )
                0188-6266
                2007-9621
                August 2018
                : 28
                : 4
                : 25-30
                Affiliations
                Saltillo orgnameUniversidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro orgdiv1Departamento de Parasitología Mexico fabygarrido@ 123456hotmail.com
                orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Coahuila orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Químicas Mexico
                Article
                S0188-62662018000400025
                10.15174/au.2018.1714

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 24, Pages: 6
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