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      Endothelial adhesion receptors are recruited to adherent leukocytes by inclusion in preformed tetraspanin nanoplatforms

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          Abstract

          VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, receptors for leukocyte integrins, are recruited to cell–cell contact sites on the apical membrane of activated endothelial cells. In this study, we show that this recruitment is independent of ligand engagement, actin cytoskeleton anchorage, and heterodimer formation. Instead, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are recruited by inclusion within specialized preformed tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, which act as endothelial adhesive platforms (EAPs). Using advanced analytical fluorescence techniques, we have characterized the diffusion properties at the single-molecule level, nanoscale organization, and specific intradomain molecular interactions of EAPs in living primary endothelial cells. This study provides compelling evidence for the existence of EAPs as physical entities at the plasma membrane, distinct from lipid rafts. Scanning electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled samples treated with a specific tetraspanin-blocking peptide identify nanoclustering of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 within EAPs as a novel mechanism for supramolecular organization that regulates the leukocyte integrin–binding capacity of both endothelial receptors during extravasation.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Getting to the site of inflammation: the leukocyte adhesion cascade updated.

          Neutrophil recruitment, lymphocyte recirculation and monocyte trafficking all require adhesion and transmigration through blood-vessel walls. The traditional three steps of rolling, activation and firm adhesion have recently been augmented and refined. Slow rolling, adhesion strengthening, intraluminal crawling and paracellular and transcellular migration are now recognized as separate, additional steps. In neutrophils, a second activation pathway has been discovered that does not require signalling through G-protein-coupled receptors and the signalling steps leading to integrin activation are beginning to emerge. This Review focuses on new aspects of one of the central paradigms of inflammation and immunity--the leukocyte adhesion cascade.
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            Lipid rafts and signal transduction.

             D Toomre,  K Simons (2000)
            Signal transduction is initiated by complex protein-protein interactions between ligands, receptors and kinases, to name only a few. It is now becoming clear that lipid micro-environments on the cell surface -- known as lipid rafts -- also take part in this process. Lipid rafts containing a given set of proteins can change their size and composition in response to intra- or extracellular stimuli. This favours specific protein-protein interactions, resulting in the activation of signalling cascades.
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              A monomeric red fluorescent protein.

              All coelenterate fluorescent proteins cloned to date display some form of quaternary structure, including the weak tendency of Aequorea green fluorescent protein (GFP) to dimerize, the obligate dimerization of Renilla GFP, and the obligate tetramerization of the red fluorescent protein from Discosoma (DsRed). Although the weak dimerization of Aequorea GFP has not impeded its acceptance as an indispensable tool of cell biology, the obligate tetramerization of DsRed has greatly hindered its use as a genetically encoded fusion tag. We present here the stepwise evolution of DsRed to a dimer and then either to a genetic fusion of two copies of the protein, i.e., a tandem dimer, or to a true monomer designated mRFP1 (monomeric red fluorescent protein). Each subunit interface was disrupted by insertion of arginines, which initially crippled the resulting protein, but red fluorescence could be rescued by random and directed mutagenesis totaling 17 substitutions in the dimer and 33 in mRFP1. Fusions of the gap junction protein connexin43 to mRFP1 formed fully functional junctions, whereas analogous fusions to the tetramer and dimer failed. Although mRFP1 has somewhat lower extinction coefficient, quantum yield, and photostability than DsRed, mRFP1 matures >10 times faster, so that it shows similar brightness in living cells. In addition, the excitation and emission peaks of mRFP1, 584 and 607 nm, are approximately 25 nm red-shifted from DsRed, which should confer greater tissue penetration and spectral separation from autofluorescence and other fluorescent proteins.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                3 November 2008
                : 183
                : 3
                : 527-542
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Servicio de Inmunología, Hospital de la Princesa, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28006 Madrid, Spain
                [2 ]Departamento de Biología Vascular e Inflamación and [3 ]Unidad de Genómica, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares, 28029 Madrid, Spain
                [4 ]Department of Molecular Biology and Functional Genomics and [5 ]Italian Institute of Technology Network Research, Unit of Molecular Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132 Milan, Italy
                [6 ]Academic Neurology Unit, School of Medicine and Biomedical Science, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2RX, England, UK
                [7 ]Laboratory for Fluorescence Dynamics, Biomedical Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697
                Author notes

                Correspondence to Francisco Sánchez-Madrid: fsanchez.hlpr@ 123456salud.madrid.org

                Article
                200805076
                10.1083/jcb.200805076
                2575792
                18955551
                © 2008 Barreiro et al.

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.jcb.org/misc/terms.shtml). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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