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      Evaluation of Typhoon Waves Simulated by WaveWatch-III Model in Shallow Waters Around Zhoushan Islands

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          In this study, we simulated typhoon waves in the shallow waters around the Zhoushan Islands using the WaveWatch-III (WW3) model version 5.16, the latest version released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Specifically, we used in-situ measurements to evaluate the performance of seven packages of input/dissipation source terms in the WW3 model. We forced the WW3 model by wind fields derived from a combination of the parametric Holland model and high-resolution European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) wind data in a 0.125˚ grid, herein called H-E winds. We trained the H-E winds by fitting a shape parameter B to buoy-measured observations, which resulted in a smallest root mean square error ( RMSE) of 3 m s −1 for B, when treated as a constant 0.4. Then, we applied the seven input/dissipation terms of WW3, labelled ST1, ST2, ST2+STAB2, ST3, ST3+STAB3, ST4, and ST6, to simulate the significant wave height (SWH) up to 5 m during typhoons Fungwong and Chan-hom around the Zhoushan Islands. We then compared the SWHs of the simulated waves with those measured by the in-situ buoys. The results indicate that the simulation using ST2 performs best with an RMSE of 0.79 m for typhoon Fung-wong and an RMSE of 1.12 m for typhoon Chan-hom. Interestingly, we found the simulated SWH results to be relatively higher than those of the observations in the area between Hangzhou Bay and the Zhoushan Islands. This behavior is worthy of further investigation in the future.

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          Author and article information

          Journal of Ocean University of China
          Science Press and Springer (China )
          07 May 2019
          01 April 2019
          : 18
          : 2
          : 365-375
          1 Marine Science and Technology College, Zhejiang Ocean University, Zhoushan 316000, China
          2 Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
          3 Laboratory for Ocean Dynamics and Climate, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071, China
          4 National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration, Dalian 116023, China
          5 Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
          Author notes
          *Corresponding author: SHAO Weizeng
          Copyright © Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2019.

          The copyright to this article, including any graphic elements therein (e.g. illustrations, charts, moving images), is hereby assigned for good and valuable consideration to the editorial office of Journal of Ocean University of China, Science Press and Springer effective if and when the article is accepted for publication and to the extent assignable if assignability is restricted for by applicable law or regulations (e.g. for U.S. government or crown employees).

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