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      Physical Activity and Public Health : Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association

      Circulation

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Abstract

          In 1995 the American College of Sports Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published national guidelines on Physical Activity and Public Health. The Committee on Exercise and Cardiac Rehabilitation of the American Heart Association endorsed and supported these recommendations. The purpose of the present report is to update and clarify the 1995 recommendations on the types and amounts of physical activity needed by healthy adults to improve and maintain health. Development of this document was by an expert panel of scientists, including physicians, epidemiologists, exercise scientists, and public health specialists. This panel reviewed advances in pertinent physiologic, epidemiologic, and clinical scientific data, including primary research articles and reviews published since the original recommendation was issued in 1995. Issues considered by the panel included new scientific evidence relating physical activity to health, physical activity recommendations by various organizations in the interim, and communications issues. Key points related to updating the physical activity recommendation were outlined and writing groups were formed. A draft manuscript was prepared and circulated for review to the expert panel as well as to outside experts. Comments were integrated into the final recommendation. To promote and maintain health, all healthy adults aged 18 to 65 yr need moderate-intensity aerobic (endurance) physical activity for a minimum of 30 min on five days each week or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity for a minimum of 20 min on three days each week. [I (A)] Combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity can be performed to meet this recommendation. [IIa (B)] For example, a person can meet the recommendation by walking briskly for 30 min twice during the week and then jogging for 20 min on two other days. Moderate-intensity aerobic activity, which is generally equivalent to a brisk walk and noticeably accelerates the heart rate, can be accumulated toward the 30-min minimum by performing bouts each lasting 10 or more minutes. [I (B)] Vigorous-intensity activity is exemplified by jogging, and causes rapid breathing and a substantial increase in heart rate. In addition, every adult should perform activities that maintain or increase muscular strength and endurance a minimum of two days each week. [IIa (A)] Because of the dose-response relation between physical activity and health, persons who wish to further improve their personal fitness, reduce their risk for chronic diseases and disabilities or prevent unhealthy weight gain may benefit by exceeding the minimum recommended amounts of physical activity. [I (A)]

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          Most cited references 47

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          Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women.

          The role of walking, as compared with vigorous exercise, in the prevention of cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Data for women who are members of minority racial or ethnic groups are particularly sparse. We prospectively examined the total physical-activity score, walking, vigorous exercise, and hours spent sitting as predictors of the incidence of coronary events and total cardiovascular events among 73,743 postmenopausal women 50 to 79 years of age in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. At base line, participants were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease and cancer, and all participants completed detailed questionnaires about physical activity. We documented 345 newly diagnosed cases of coronary heart disease and 1551 total cardiovascular events. An increasing physical-activity score had a strong, graded, inverse association with the risk of both coronary events and total cardiovascular events. There were similar findings among white women and black women. Women in increasing quintiles of energy expenditure measured in metabolic equivalents (the MET score) had age-adjusted relative risks of coronary events of 1.00, 0.73, 0.69, 0.68, and 0.47, respectively (P for trend, <0.001). In multivariate analyses, the inverse gradient between the total MET score and the risk of cardiovascular events remained strong (adjusted relative risks for increasing quintiles, 1.00, 0.89, 0.81, 0.78, and 0.72, respectively; P for trend <0.001). Walking and vigorous exercise were associated with similar risk reductions, and the results did not vary substantially according to race, age, or body-mass index. A brisker walking pace and fewer hours spent sitting daily also predicted lower risk. These prospective data indicate that both walking and vigorous exercise are associated with substantial reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular events among postmenopausal women, irrespective of race or ethnic group, age, and body-mass index. Prolonged sitting predicts increased cardiovascular risk. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men.

            Recent trends toward increasing physical exercise, stopping cigarette smoking, and avoiding obesity may increase longevity. We analyzed changes in the lifestyles of Harvard College alumni and the associations of these changes with mortality. Men who were 45 to 84 years of age in 1977 and who had reported no life-threatening disease on questionnaires completed in 1962 or 1966 and again in 1977 were classified according to changes in lifestyle characteristics between the first and second questionnaires. We analyzed changes in their level of physical activity, cigarette smoking, blood pressure, and body weight, and the relation of these factors to mortality between 1977 and 1985. Of the 10,269 men, 476 died during this period (which totaled 90,650 man-years of observation). Beginning moderately vigorous sports activity (at an intensity of 4.5 or more metabolic equivalents) was associated with a 23 percent lower risk of death (95 percent confidence interval, 4 to 42 percent; P = 0.015) than not taking up moderately vigorous sports. Quitting cigarette smoking was associated with a 41 percent lower risk (95 percent confidence interval, 20 to 57 percent; P = 0.001) than continuing smoking, but with a 23 percent higher risk than constant nonsmoking. Men with recently diagnosed hypertension had a lower risk of death than those with long-term hypertension (relative risk, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02; P = 0.057), as did men with consistently normal blood pressure (relative risk, 0.52; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.68; P < 0.001). Maintenance of lean body mass was associated with a lower mortality rate than long-term, recent, or previous obesity. The associations between changes in lifestyle and mortality were independent and were largely undiminished by age. Our findings on death from coronary heart disease mirrored those on death from all causes. Beginning moderately vigorous sports activity, quitting cigarette smoking, maintaining normal blood pressure, and avoiding obesity were separately associated with lower rates of death from all causes and from coronary heart disease among middle-aged and older men.
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              Physical activity, including walking, and cognitive function in older women.

              Physical activity may help maintain cognitive function in older adults. To examine the relation of long-term regular physical activity, including walking, to cognitive function. Women reported participation in leisure-time physical activities on biennial mailed questionnaires beginning in 1986. We assessed long-term activity by averaging energy expenditures from questionnaires in 1986 through participants' baseline cognitive assessments (1995 to 2001). We used linear regression to estimate adjusted mean differences in baseline cognitive performance and cognitive decline over 2 years, across levels of physical activity and walking. Nurses' Health Study, including 18 766 US women aged 70 to 81 years. Validated telephone assessments of cognition administered twice approximately 2 years apart (1995 to 2001 and 1997 to 2003), including tests of general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, and attention. Higher levels of activity were associated with better cognitive performance. On a global score combining results of all 6 tests, women in the second through fifth quintiles of energy expenditure scored an average of 0.06, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.10 standard units higher than women in the lowest quintile (P for trend <.001). Compared with women in the lowest physical activity quintile, we found a 20% lower risk of cognitive impairment for women in the highest quintile of activity. Among women performing the equivalent of walking at an easy pace for at least 1.5 h/wk, mean global scores were 0.06 to 0.07 units higher compared with walking less than 40 min/wk (P< or =.003). We also observed less cognitive decline among women who were more active, especially those in the 2 highest quintiles of energy expenditure. Women in the fourth and fifth quintiles had mean changes in global scores that were 0.04 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.10) and 0.06 (95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.11) standard units better than those in the lowest quintile. Long-term regular physical activity, including walking, is associated with significantly better cognitive function and less cognitive decline in older women.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circulation
                Circulation
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0009-7322
                1524-4539
                August 28 2007
                August 28 2007
                : 116
                : 9
                : 1081-1093
                Article
                10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.185649
                17671237
                © 2007

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