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      Biosynthesis of Sulfur-Containing Small Biomolecules in Plants

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          Abstract

          Sulfur is an essential element required for plant growth. It can be found as a thiol group of proteins or non-protein molecules, and as various sulfur-containing small biomolecules, including iron-sulfur (Fe/S) clusters, molybdenum cofactor (Moco), and sulfur-modified nucleotides. Thiol-mediated redox regulation has been well investigated, whereas biosynthesis pathways of the sulfur-containing small biomolecules have not yet been clearly described. In order to understand overall sulfur transfer processes in plant cells, it is important to elucidate the relationships among various sulfur delivery pathways as well as to investigate their interactions. In this review, we summarize the information from recent studies on the biosynthesis pathways of several sulfur-containing small biomolecules and the proteins participating in these processes. In addition, we show characteristic features of gene expression in Arabidopsis at the early stage of sulfate depletion from the medium, and we provide insights into sulfur transfer processes in plant cells.

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          Most cited references78

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          Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview.

          Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues. The reasons why this small molecule is indispensable are not fully understood, but it can be inferred that glutathione has functions in plant development that cannot be performed by other thiols or antioxidants. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis. Glutathione can interact in multiple ways with proteins through thiol-disulphide exchange and related processes. Its strategic position between oxidants such as reactive oxygen species and cellular reductants makes the glutathione system perfectly configured for signalling functions. Recent years have witnessed considerable progress in understanding glutathione synthesis, degradation and transport, particularly in relation to cellular redox homeostasis and related signalling under optimal and stress conditions. Here we outline the key recent advances and discuss how alterations in glutathione status, such as those observed during stress, may participate in signal transduction cascades. The discussion highlights some of the issues surrounding the regulation of glutathione contents, the control of glutathione redox potential, and how the functions of glutathione and other thiols are integrated to fine-tune photorespiratory and respiratory metabolism and to modulate phytohormone signalling pathways through appropriate modification of sensitive protein cysteine residues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
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            Ubiquitin-like protein activation by E1 enzymes: the apex for downstream signalling pathways.

            Attachment of ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like proteins (known as UBLs) to their targets through multienzyme cascades is a central mechanism to modulate protein functions. This process is initiated by a family of mechanistically and structurally related E1 (or activating) enzymes. These activate UBLs through carboxy-terminal adenylation and thiol transfer, and coordinate the use of UBLs in specific downstream pathways by charging cognate E2 (or conjugating) enzymes, which then interact with the downstream ubiquitylation machinery to coordinate the modification of the target. A broad understanding of how E1 enzymes activate UBLs and how they selectively coordinate UBLs with downstream function has come from enzymatic, structural and genetic studies.
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              Sulfur assimilation in photosynthetic organisms: molecular functions and regulations of transporters and assimilatory enzymes.

              Sulfur is required for growth of all organisms and is present in a wide variety of metabolites having distinctive biological functions. Sulfur is cycled in ecosystems in nature where conversion of sulfate to organic sulfur compounds is primarily dependent on sulfate uptake and reduction pathways in photosynthetic organisms and microorganisms. In vascular plant species, transport proteins and enzymes in this pathway are functionally diversified to have distinct biochemical properties in specific cellular and subcellular compartments. Recent findings indicate regulatory processes of sulfate transport and metabolism are tightly connected through several modes of transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. This review provides up-to-date knowledge in functions and regulations of sulfur assimilation in plants and algae, focusing on sulfate transport systems and metabolic pathways for sulfate reduction and synthesis of downstream metabolites with diverse biological functions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                14 May 2020
                May 2020
                : 21
                : 10
                : 3470
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, Osaka Medical College, 2-7 Daigakumachi, Takatsuki 569-8686, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 744, Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan; amaru@ 123456agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: med004@ 123456osaka-med.ac.jp ; Fax: +81-72-684-6516
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6785-4789
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3240-2843
                Article
                ijms-21-03470
                10.3390/ijms21103470
                7278922
                32423011
                3368f289-14d3-44a5-8a04-6040ccd4a9ce
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 08 April 2020
                : 13 May 2020
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                sulfur-containing small biomolecules,cysteine desulfurase: sulfane sulfur,iron-sulfur (fe/s) cluster,molybdenum cofactor (moco),rhodanese (rhd),sulfur modification of trna,persulfide

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