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      Defining Dysbiosis for a Cluster of Chronic Diseases

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      1 , 2 , 2 , 3 ,
      Scientific Reports
      Nature Publishing Group UK
      Metagenomics, Microbial ecology

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          Abstract

          The prevalence of many chronic diseases has increased over the last decades. It has been postulated that dysbiosis driven by environmental factors such as antibiotic use is shifting the microbiome in ways that increase inflammation and the onset of chronic disease. Dysbiosis can be defined through the loss or gain of bacteria that either promote health or disease, respectively. Here we use multiple independent datasets to determine the nature of dysbiosis for a cluster of chronic diseases that includes urinary stone disease (USD), obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and kidney disease, which often exist as co-morbidities. For all disease states, individuals exhibited a statistically significant association with antibiotics in the last year compared to healthy counterparts. There was also a statistically significant association between antibiotic use and gut microbiota composition. Furthermore, each disease state was associated with a loss of microbial diversity in the gut. Three genera, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus, were the most common dysbiotic taxa in terms of being enriched or depleted in disease populations and was driven in part by the diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within these genera. Results of the cross-sectional analysis suggest that antibiotic-driven loss of microbial diversity may increase the risk for chronic disease. However, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causative effect of diversity loss for chronic disease risk.

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          Controlling the False Discovery Rate: A Practical and Powerful Approach to Multiple Testing

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            Moderated estimation of fold change and dispersion for RNA-seq data with DESeq2

            In comparative high-throughput sequencing assays, a fundamental task is the analysis of count data, such as read counts per gene in RNA-seq, for evidence of systematic changes across experimental conditions. Small replicate numbers, discreteness, large dynamic range and the presence of outliers require a suitable statistical approach. We present DESeq2, a method for differential analysis of count data, using shrinkage estimation for dispersions and fold changes to improve stability and interpretability of estimates. This enables a more quantitative analysis focused on the strength rather than the mere presence of differential expression. The DESeq2 package is available at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13059-014-0550-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

              In 2010, overweight and obesity were estimated to cause 3·4 million deaths, 3·9% of years of life lost, and 3·8% of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) worldwide. The rise in obesity has led to widespread calls for regular monitoring of changes in overweight and obesity prevalence in all populations. Comparable, up-to-date information about levels and trends is essential to quantify population health effects and to prompt decision makers to prioritise action. We estimate the global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013. We systematically identified surveys, reports, and published studies (n=1769) that included data for height and weight, both through physical measurements and self-reports. We used mixed effects linear regression to correct for bias in self-reports. We obtained data for prevalence of obesity and overweight by age, sex, country, and year (n=19,244) with a spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression model to estimate prevalence with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Worldwide, the proportion of adults with a body-mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater increased between 1980 and 2013 from 28·8% (95% UI 28·4-29·3) to 36·9% (36·3-37·4) in men, and from 29·8% (29·3-30·2) to 38·0% (37·5-38·5) in women. Prevalence has increased substantially in children and adolescents in developed countries; 23·8% (22·9-24·7) of boys and 22·6% (21·7-23·6) of girls were overweight or obese in 2013. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased in children and adolescents in developing countries, from 8·1% (7·7-8·6) to 12·9% (12·3-13·5) in 2013 for boys and from 8·4% (8·1-8·8) to 13·4% (13·0-13·9) in girls. In adults, estimated prevalence of obesity exceeded 50% in men in Tonga and in women in Kuwait, Kiribati, Federated States of Micronesia, Libya, Qatar, Tonga, and Samoa. Since 2006, the increase in adult obesity in developed countries has slowed down. Because of the established health risks and substantial increases in prevalence, obesity has become a major global health challenge. Not only is obesity increasing, but no national success stories have been reported in the past 33 years. Urgent global action and leadership is needed to help countries to more effectively intervene. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                millera25@ccf.org
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                9 September 2019
                9 September 2019
                2019
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0675 4725, GRID grid.239578.2, Lerner College of Medicine, , Cleveland Clinic, ; Cleveland, OH USA
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0675 4725, GRID grid.239578.2, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, , Cleveland Clinic, ; Cleveland, OH USA
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0675 4725, GRID grid.239578.2, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, , Cleveland Clinic, ; Cleveland, OH USA
                Article
                49452
                10.1038/s41598-019-49452-y
                6733864
                31501492
                336d699a-df02-482a-b949-4a5698323113
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2019

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                metagenomics,microbial ecology
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                metagenomics, microbial ecology

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