Global Burden of Disease Cancer Collaboration Christina Fitzmaurice , MD , 1 , 2 , 3 Tomi F. Akinyemiju , PhD 4 Faris Hasan Al Lami , PhD 5 Tahiya Alam , MPH 2 Reza Alizadeh-Navaei , PhD 6 Christine Allen , BA 2 Ubai Alsharif , MPH 7 Nelson Alvis-Guzman , PhD 8 Erfan Amini , MD 9 , 10 Benjamin O. Anderson , MD 11 Olatunde Aremu , PhD 12 Al Artaman , PhD 13 Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom , MS 14 Reza Assadi , PhD 15 Tesfay Mehari Atey , MS 14 Leticia Avila-Burgos , PhD 16 Ashish Awasthi , PhD 17 Huda Omer Ba Saleem , PhD 18 Aleksandra Barac , PhD 19 James R. Bennett , BA 2 Isabela M. Bensenor , PhD 20 Nickhill Bhakta , MD 21 Hermann Brenner , MD 22 Lucero Cahuana-Hurtado , PhD 16 Carlos A. Castañeda-Orjuela , MSc 23 , 24 Ferrán Catalá-López , PhD 25 , 26 Jee-Young Jasmine Choi , PhD 27 , 28 Devasahayam Jesudas Christopher , MD 29 Sheng-Chia Chung , PhD 30 Maria Paula Curado , PhD 31 , 32 Lalit Dandona , MD 2 , 33 Rakhi Dandona , PhD 2 , 33 José das Neves , PhD 34 , 35 Subhojit Dey , PhD 36 Samath D. Dharmaratne , MD 37 David Teye Doku , PhD 38 , 39 Tim R. Driscoll , PhD 40 Manisha Dubey , MPhil 41 Hedyeh Ebrahimi , MPH 9 , 42 Dumessa Edessa , MS 43 Ziad El-Khatib , PhD 44 , 45 Aman Yesuf Endries , MPH 46 Florian Fischer , PhD 47 Lisa M. Force , MD 21 Kyle J. Foreman , PhD 2 , 48 Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot , MS 49 Sameer Vali Gopalani , MPH 50 Giuseppe Grosso , PhD 51 , 52 Rahul Gupta , MD 53 Bishal Gyawali , MPH 54 Randah Ribhi Hamadeh , DPhil 55 Samer Hamidi , DrPH 56 James Harvey , BS 2 Hamid Yimam Hassen , MPH 57 Roderick J. Hay , DM 58 , 59 Simon I. Hay , DSc 2 , 60 Behzad Heibati , PhD 61 Molla Kahssay Hiluf , MPH 62 Nobuyuki Horita , MD 63 H. Dean Hosgood , PhD 64 Olayinka S. Ilesanmi , MD 65 Kaire Innos , PhD 66 Farhad Islami , PhD 67 Mihajlo B. Jakovljevic , PhD 68 , 69 Sarah Charlotte Johnson , MSc 2 Jost B. Jonas , MD 70 Amir Kasaeian , PhD 71 , 72 Tesfaye Dessale Kassa , MS 14 Yousef Saleh Khader , ScD 73 Ejaz Ahmad Khan , MD 74 Gulfaraz Khan , PhD 75 Young-Ho Khang , MD 76 , 77 Mohammad Hossein Khosravi , MD 78 , 79 Jagdish Khubchandani , PhD 80 Jacek A. Kopec , PhD 81 G. Anil Kumar , PhD 33 Michael Kutz 2 Deepesh Pravinkumar Lad , DM 82 Alessandra Lafranconi , MD 83 Qing Lan , PhD 84 Yirga Legesse , MS 14 James Leigh , PhD 85 Shai Linn , MD 86 Raimundas Lunevicius , PhD 87 , 88 Azeem Majeed , MD 89 Reza Malekzadeh , MD 90 Deborah Carvalho Malta , PhD 91 Lorenzo G. Mantovani , DSc 83 Brian J. McMahon , MD 92 Toni Meier , PhD 93 Yohannes Adama Melaku , MPH 94 , 95 Mulugeta Melku , MS 96 Peter Memiah , PhD 97 Walter Mendoza , MD 98 Tuomo J. Meretoja , PhD 99 , 100 Haftay Berhane Mezgebe , MS 14 Ted R. Miller , PhD 101 , 102 Shafiu Mohammed , PhD 103 , 104 Ali H. Mokdad , PhD 2 Mahmood Moosazadeh , PhD 105 Paula Moraga 106 Seyyed Meysam Mousavi , PhD 107 Vinay Nangia , MD 108 Cuong Tat Nguyen , MSc 109 Vuong Minh Nong , MSc 109 Felix Akpojene Ogbo , MPH 110 Andrew Toyin Olagunju , MD 111 , 112 , 113 Mahesh PA , DNB 114 Eun-Kee Park , PhD 115 Tejas Patel , MD 116 David M. Pereira , PhD 117 Farhad Pishgar , MD 10 , 118 Maarten J Postma , PhD 119 , 120 Farshad Pourmalek , PhD 81 Mostafa Qorbani , PhD 121 Anwar Rafay , MS 122 , 123 Salman Rawaf , MD 48 David Laith Rawaf , MD 124 , 125 , 126 Gholamreza Roshandel , PhD 90 , 127 Saeid Safiri , PhD 128 Hamideh Salimzadeh , PhD 129 Juan Ramon Sanabria , MD 130 , 131 Milena M. Santric Milicevic , PhD 132 , 133 Benn Sartorius , PhD 134 , 135 Maheswar Satpathy , PhD 136 Sadaf G. Sepanlou , PhD 90 Katya Anne Shackelford , BA 2 Masood Ali Shaikh , MD 137 Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini , PhD 138 Jun She , MD 139 Min-Jeong Shin , PhD 140 Ivy Shiue , PhD 141 , 142 Mark G. Shrime , MD 143 Abiy Hiruye Sinke , MD 144 Mekonnen Sisay , MS 43 Amber Sligar , MPH 2 Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan , MBA 145 Bryan L. Sykes , PhD 146 Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos , PhD 25 Gizachew Assefa Tessema , MPH 96 , 147 Roman Topor-Madry , PhD 148 , 149 Tung Thanh Tran , MSc 109 Bach Xuan Tran , PhD 150 , 151 Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja , MD 152 Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov , MD 153 Stein Emil Vollset , DrPH 2 Elisabete Weiderpass , PhD 154 , 155 , 156 , 157 Hywel C. Williams , DSc 158 Nigus Bililign Yimer , MS 159 Naohiro Yonemoto , MPH 160 Mustafa Z. Younis , DrPH 161 Christopher J. L. Murray , DPhil 2 Mohsen Naghavi , PhD 2
2 June 2018
This systematic analysis evaluates the cancer burden over time at the global and national levels measured in incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years.
What is the cancer burden over time at the global and national levels measured in incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)?
In this systematic analysis, in 2016 there were 17.2 million incident cancer cases, 8.9 million deaths, and 213.2 million DALYs due to cancer worldwide. Between 2006 and 2016, incident cases increased by 28%, with the largest increase occurring in the least developed countries.
The increasing burden due to cancer and other noncommunicable diseases poses a threat to human development, which has resulted in global political commitments reflected in the Sustainable Development Goals as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan on Non-Communicable Diseases. To determine if these commitments have resulted in improved cancer control, quantitative assessments of the cancer burden are required.
To assess the burden for 29 cancer groups over time to provide a framework for policy discussion, resource allocation, and research focus.
Cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evaluated for 195 countries and territories by age and sex using the Global Burden of Disease study estimation methods. Levels and trends were analyzed over time, as well as by the Sociodemographic Index (SDI). Changes in incident cases were categorized by changes due to epidemiological vs demographic transition.
In 2016, there were 17.2 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.9 million deaths. Cancer cases increased by 28% between 2006 and 2016. The smallest increase was seen in high SDI countries. Globally, population aging contributed 17%; population growth, 12%; and changes in age-specific rates, −1% to this change. The most common incident cancer globally for men was prostate cancer (1.4 million cases). The leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer (1.2 million deaths and 25.4 million DALYs). For women, the most common incident cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs was breast cancer (1.7 million incident cases, 535 000 deaths, and 14.9 million DALYs). In 2016, cancer caused 213.2 million DALYs globally for both sexes combined. Between 2006 and 2016, the average annual age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 130 of 195 countries or territories, and the average annual age-standardized death rates decreased within that timeframe in 143 of 195 countries or territories.
Large disparities exist between countries in cancer incidence, deaths, and associated disability. Scaling up cancer prevention and ensuring universal access to cancer care are required for health equity and to fulfill the global commitments for noncommunicable disease and cancer control.