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      Is schizophrenia associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease? A nationwide matched-cohort study

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          Abstract

          Objective

          The impact of schizophrenia on vital diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD), has not as yet been verified. This study aims to establish whether there is an association between schizophrenia and CKD.

          Design

          A nationwide matched cohort study.

          Setting

          Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database.

          Participants

          A total of 2338 patients with schizophrenia, and 7014 controls without schizophrenia (1:3), matched cohort for sex, age group, geography, urbanisation and monthly income, between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2007, based on the International Classifications of Disease Ninth Edition (ICD-9), Clinical Modification codes.

          Primary and secondary outcome measures

          After making adjustments for confounding risk factors, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the risk of developing CKD during a 3-year follow-up period from the index date.

          Results

          Of the 2338-subject case cohort, 163 (6.97%) developed a CKD, as did 365 (5.20%) of the 7014 control participants. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that patients with schizophrenia were more likely to develop CKD (HR=1.36, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.63; p<0.001). After adjusting for gender, age group, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, heart disease and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usage, the HR for patients with schizophrenia was 1.25 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.50; p<0.05). Neither typical nor atypical antipsychotics was associated an increased risk of CKD in patients with schizophrenia.

          Conclusions

          The findings from this population-based retrospective cohort study suggest that schizophrenia is associated with a 25% increase in the risk of developing CKD within only a 3-year follow-up period.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Causes of the excess mortality of schizophrenia.

          The excess mortality of schizophrenia is well recognised, but its precise causes are not well understood. To measure the standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and examine the reasons for any excess mortality in a community cohort with schizophrenia. We carried out a 13-year follow-up of 370 patients with schizophrenia, identifying those who died and their circumstances. Ninety-six per cent of the cohort was traced. There were 79 deaths. The SMRs for all causes (298), for natural (232) and for unnatural causes (1273), were significantly higher than those to be expected in the general population, as were the SMRs for disease of the circulatory, digestive, endocrine, nervous and respiratory systems, suicide and undetermined death. Smoking-related fatal disease was more prominent than in the general population. Some of the excess mortality of schizophrenia could be lessened by reducing patients' smoking and exposure to other environmental risk factors and by improving the management of medical disease, mood disturbance and psychosis.
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            Size of burden of schizophrenia and psychotic disorders.

            Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterised by fundamental disturbances in thinking, perception and emotions. More than 100 years of research have not been able to fully resolve the puzzle that schizophrenia represents. Even if schizophrenia is not a very frequent disease, it is among the most burdensome and costly illnesses worldwide. It usually starts in young adulthood. Life expectancy is reduced by approximately 10 years, mostly as a consequence of suicide. Even if the course of the illness today is considered more favourable than it was originally described, it is still only a minority of those affected, who fully recover. The cumulative lifetime risk for men and women is similar, although it is higher for men in the age group younger than 40 years. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study, schizophrenia causes a high degree of disability, which accounts for 1.1% of the total DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) and 2.8% of YLDs (years lived with disability). In the World Health Report [The WHO World Health Report: new understanding, new hope, 2001. Geneva], schizophrenia is listed as the 8th leading cause of DALYs worldwide in the age group 15-44 years. In addition to the direct burden, there is considerable burden on the relatives who care for the sufferers. The treatment goals for the moment are to identify the illness as early as possible, treat the symptoms, provide skills to patients and their families, maintain the improvement over a period of time, prevent relapses and reintegrate the ill persons into the community so that they can lead as normal a life as possible.
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              Epidemiology, impact and preventive care of chronic kidney disease in Taiwan.

              Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a global public health burden. Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence rates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the world. In this review, the following key issues of CKD in Taiwan are addressed: epidemiological data, underlying diseases patterns, risk factors, public health concerns and a preventive project. Prevalence of CKD are reported to be 6.9% for CKD stage 3-5, 9.83% for clinically recognized CKD and 11.9% for CKD stage 1-5. However, overall awareness of CKD is low, 9.7% for CKD stage 1-3 and 3.5% for stage 1-5. Diabetes mellitus (43.2%), chronic glomerulonephritis (25.1%), hypertension (8.3%) and chronic interstitial nephritis (2.8%) are four major underlying renal diseases of ESRD. Older age, diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obesity, regular use of herbal medicine, family members (both relatives and spouses), chronic lead exposure and hepatitis C are associated with higher risk for CKD. Impact of CKD increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular diseases, especially in those with overt proteinuria and advanced CKD stages. These impacts lead to increased medical costs. The nationwide CKD Preventive Project with multidisciplinary care program has proved its effectiveness in decreasing dialysis incidence, mortality and medical costs. It is crucially significant from Taiwan experience on CKD survey and preliminary outcome of the preventive project. Provision of a more comprehensive public health strategy and better care plan for CKD should be achieved by future international collaborative efforts and research.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2015
                27 January 2015
                : 5
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, School of Medicine, National Defense Medical Center , Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]Student Counseling Center, National Defense Medical Center , Taipei, Taiwan
                [3 ]Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University , New Taipei City, Taiwan
                [4 ]Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Chiao Tung University , Hsinchu, Taiwan
                [5 ]Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University , Hsinchu, Taiwan
                [6 ]Department of Computer Science, Tunghai University , Taichung, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Hui-Ling Huang; hlhuang@ 123456mail.nctu.edu.tw
                Article
                bmjopen-2014-006777
                10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006777
                4316552
                25628048
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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