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      Evidence for Decreased Circulating Apelin beyond Heart Involvement in Uremic Cardiomyopathy

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          Abstract

          Background: Plasma apelin concentration in heart failure has been described in small studies reporting conflicting results. In hemodialysis (HD) patients, apelin decreased more in those with more severe heart involvement. It is unclear if uremia is connected to this reduction irrespective of heart failure. We compared apelin in two cardiomyopathies with different renal function. Methods: Observational study conducted in 30 adult Caucasian outpatients in class I NYHA not affected by diabetes or ischemic heart, 15 with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and 15 with uremic dilated cardiomyopathy undergoing HD. Plasma apelin, creatinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, endothelin, NT proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and Doppler echocardiogram were evaluated. Results: Heart involvement was more severe in the DCM patients (lower ejection fraction, greater diastolic volume index, and worse index of myocardial performance). Median value of apelin in HD patients (19.1 pg/ml) was one third of that in DCM patients (58.2 pg/ml) whereas creatinine, NT-proBNP, and C-reactive protein were 11, 80, and 9 times higher respectively in HD than in DCM patients. Median values of endothelin were comparable in both groups. Apelin was not significantly correlated with any variable. Conclusion: Uremic status was the determinant for decreased plasma apelin in HD patients regardless of the severity of heart involvement.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity.

            The results presented herein demonstrate that apelin is expressed and secreted by both human and mouse adipocytes. Apelin mRNA levels in isolated adipocytes are close to other cell types present in white adipose tissue or other organs known to express apelin such as kidney, heart, and to a lesser extent brown adipose tissue. Apelin expression is increased during adipocyte differentiation stage. A comparison of four different models of obesity in mice showed a large increase in both apelin expression in fat cells and apelin plasma levels in all the hyperinsulinemia-associated obesities and clearly demonstrated that obesity or high-fat feeding are not the main determinants of the rise of apelin expression. The lack of insulin in streptozotocin-treated mice is associated with a decreased expression of apelin in adipocytes. Furthermore, apelin expression in fat cells is strongly inhibited by fasting and recovered after refeeding, in a similar way to insulin. A direct regulation of apelin expression by insulin is observed in both human and mouse adipocytes and clearly associated with the stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and MAPK. These data provide evidence that insulin exerts a direct control on apelin gene expression in adipocytes. In obese patients, both plasma apelin and insulin levels were significantly higher, suggesting that the regulation of apelin by insulin could influence blood concentrations of apelin. The present work identifies apelin as a novel adipocyte endocrine secretion and focuses on its potential link with obesity-associated variations of insulin sensitivity status.
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              Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis: epidemiology, cardiovascular outcomes, and clinical prediction rules.

              Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is the most common primary disease of the renal arteries, and it is associated with two major clinical syndromes, ischemic renal disease and hypertension. The prevalence of this disease in the population is undefined because there is no simple and reliable test that can be applied on a large scale. Renal artery involvement in patients with coronary heart disease and/or heart failure is frequent, and it may influence cardiovascular outcomes and survival in these patients. Suspecting renal arterial stenosis in patients with recurrent episodes of pulmonary edema is justified by observations showing that about one third of elderly patients with heart failure display atherosclerotic renal disease. Whether interventions aimed at restoring arterial patency may reduce the high mortality in patients with heart failure is still unclear because, to date, no prospective study has been carried out in these patients. Increased awareness of the need for cost containment has renewed the interest in clinical cues for suspecting renovascular hypertension. In this regard, the DRASTIC study constitutes an important attempt at validating clinical prediction rules. In this study, a clinical rule was derived that predicted renal artery stenosis as efficiently as renal scintigraphy (sensitivity: clinical rule, 65% versus scintigraphy, 72%; specificity: 87% versus 92%). When tested in a systematic and quantitative manner, clinical findings can perform as accurately as more complex tests in the detection of renal artery stenosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                March 2007
                05 January 2007
                : 27
                : 1
                : 1-6
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aNephrology, bLaboratory Medicine, and cCardiology, University Hospital, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
                Article
                98430 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:1–6
                10.1159/000098430
                17204831
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 18, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98430
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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