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      Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy

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      Kidney International

      Elsevier BV

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          Proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits.

          Dysproteinemias that result in monoclonal glomerular deposits of IgG are relatively uncommon. Here, we report the largest series of proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits, a form of renal involvement by monoclonal gammopathy that mimics immune-complex glomerulonephritis. We retrospectively identified 37 patients, most of whom were white (81%), female (62%), or older than 50 yr (65%). At presentation, 49% had nephrotic syndrome, 68% had renal insufficiency, and 77% had hematuria. In 30% of the patients, we identified a monoclonal serum protein with the same heavy- and light-chain isotypes as the glomerular deposits (mostly IgG1 or IgG2), but only one patient had myeloma. Histologic patterns were predominantly membranoproliferative (57%) or endocapillary proliferative (35%) with membranous features. Electron microscopy revealed granular, nonorganized deposits, and immunofluorescence demonstrated glomerular deposits that stained for a single light-chain isotype and a single heavy-chain subtype, most commonly IgG3kappa (53%). During an average of 30.3 mo of follow-up for 32 patients with available data, 38% had complete or partial recovery, 38% had persistent renal dysfunction, and 22% progressed to ESRD. Correlates of ESRD on univariate analysis were higher creatinine at biopsy, percentage of glomerulosclerosis, and degree of interstitial fibrosis but not immunomodulatory treatment or presence of a monoclonal spike. On multivariate analysis, higher percentage of glomerulosclerosis was the only independent predictor of ESRD. Only one patient lacking a monoclonal spike at presentation subsequently developed a monoclonal spike and no patient with a monoclonal spike at presentation subsequently developed a hematologic malignancy. We conclude that proliferative glomerulonephritis with monoclonal IgG deposits does not seem to be a precursor of myeloma in the vast majority of patients.
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            Thrombotic microangiopathy and associated renal disorders*

            Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a pathological process involving thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and microvascular occlusion. TMA is common to haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) associated with shiga toxin or invasive pneumococcal infection, atypical HUS (aHUS), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and other disorders including malignant hypertension. HUS complicating infection with shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant cause of acute renal failure in children worldwide, occurring sporadically or in epidemics. Studies in aHUS have revealed genetic and acquired factors leading to dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway. TTP has been linked to reduced activity of the ADAMTS13 cleaving protease (typically with an autoantibody to ADAMTS13) with consequent disruption of von Willebrand factor multimer processing. However, the convergence of pathogenic pathways and clinical overlap create diagnostic uncertainty, especially at initial presentation. Furthermore, recent developments are challenging established management protocols. This review addresses the current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying TMA, relating these to clinical presentation with an emphasis on renal manifestations. A diagnostic and therapeutic approach is presented, based on international guidelines, disease registries and published trials. Early treatment remains largely empirical, consisting of plasma replacement/exchange with the exception of childhood STEC-HUS or pneumococcal sepsis. Emerging therapies such as the complement C5 inhibitor eculizumab for aHUS and rituximab for TTP are discussed, as is renal transplantation for those patients who become dialysis-dependent as a result of aHUS.
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              C3 glomerulonephritis associated with monoclonal gammopathy: a case series.

              C3 glomerulonephritis (GN) is a proliferative GN resulting from glomerular deposition of complement factors due to dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement. Dysregulation of the alternative pathway of complement may occur as a result of mutations or functional inhibition of complement-regulating proteins. Functional inhibition of the complement-regulating proteins may result from a monoclonal gammopathy. Case series. 32 Mayo Clinic patients with C3 GN, 10 (31%) of whom had evidence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin in serum. Clinical features, hematologic and bone marrow biopsy findings, kidney biopsy findings, kidney measures, complement pathway abnormalities, treatment, and follow-up of patients with C3 GN that was associated with a monoclonal gammopathy. Mean age of patients with C3 GN associated with monoclonal gammopathy was 54.5 years. Bone marrow biopsy done in 9 patients revealed monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance in 5 patients, small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia in one patient, and no abnormal clones in the other 3 patients. Kidney biopsy showed membranoproliferative GN with bright capillary wall C3 staining in all 10 patients. Evaluation of the alternative pathway of complement showed abnormalities in 7 of 9 patients tested. No mutation in complement-regulating proteins was detected in any patient. As an index case, one patient with C3 GN and chronic lymphocytic leukemia was treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone, and one patient with C3 GN and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance was treated with dexamethasone and bortezomib. Both patients showed significant decreases in hematuria and proteinuria and stabilization of kidney function. Studies to show evidence of direct activation of the alternative pathway by monoclonal immunoglobulin were not done. The study highlights the association of C3 GN and monoclonal gammopathy, in particular in the older population, and the importance of targeting the underlying hematologic malignancy as an approach to treating C3 GN. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Kidney International
                Kidney International
                Elsevier BV
                00852538
                March 2017
                March 2017
                : 91
                : 3
                : 691-698
                Article
                10.1016/j.kint.2016.09.045
                © 2017

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