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      Dyslipidemia in Adolescents Seen in a University Hospital in the city of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil: Prevalence and Association

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          Abstract

          Background

          Early exposure to obesity favors greater risks of cardiovascular factors such as dyslipidemia.

          Objectives

          To establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia, and to evaluate its association with nutritional status of the adolescents attended at the ambulatory of the Adolescent Health Studies Center of the University Hospital Pedro Ernesto.

          Methods

          This is a cross-sectional, observational study, the sample of which was of convenience, consisting of adolescents from 12 to 18 years old of both genders. The lipid profile was evaluated, along with its association with the anthropometric indicators: body mass index and waist circumference. For statistical analysis, a significance level of 5% was used.

          Results

          A total of 239 adolescents, 104 boys (43.5%) and 135 girls (56.5%) were evaluated and, of these, 52 (21.8%) were eutrophic, 60 (25.1%) overweight, and 127 (53.1%) obese. Obeseadolescents had significantly lower mean values of HDL-cholesterol (44.7 mg/dl vs 53.9 mg/dl; p < 0.001) and higher triglycerides (109.6 mg/dl vs 87.3 mg/dl; p = 0.01). The changes with higher prevalence were low HDL-cholesterol (50.6%), hypercholesterolemia (35.1%), and hypertriglyceridemia (18.4%). A negative association of HDL-cholesterol with body mass index and a positive association of triglycerides with body mass index could be observed, even after adjustment for gender and skin color.

          Conclusion

          This study demonstrated high prevalence of dyslipidemia among adolescents. In view of the significant association between lower levels of HDL-cholesterol and increased triglycerides with overweight, the control of these factors should receive attention, with the precocious diagnosis of the dyslipidemia being important, mainly if it is associated with another cardiovascular risk, to develop effective intervention strategies.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge.

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            Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.

            The prevalence and magnitude of childhood obesity are increasing dramatically. We examined the effect of varying degrees of obesity on the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its relation to insulin resistance and to C-reactive protein and adiponectin levels in a large, multiethnic, multiracial cohort of children and adolescents. We administered a standard glucose-tolerance test to 439 obese, 31 overweight, and 20 nonobese children and adolescents. Baseline measurements included blood pressure and plasma lipid, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin levels. Levels of triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and blood pressure were adjusted for age and sex. Because the body-mass index varies according to age, we standardized the value for age and sex with the use of conversion to a z score. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased with the severity of obesity and reached 50 percent in severely obese youngsters. Each half-unit increase in the body-mass index, converted to a z score, was associated with an increase in the risk of the metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese subjects (odds ratio, 1.55; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.16 to 2.08), as was each unit of increase in insulin resistance as assessed with the homeostatic model (odds ratio, 1.12; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.18 for each additional unit of insulin resistance). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased significantly with increasing insulin resistance (P for trend, <0.001) after adjustment for race or ethnic group and the degree of obesity. C-reactive protein levels increased and adiponectin levels decreased with increasing obesity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is high among obese children and adolescents, and it increases with worsening obesity. Biomarkers of an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes are already present in these youngsters. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              2016 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the Management of Dyslipidaemias.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Arq Bras Cardiol
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol
                abc
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC
                0066-782X
                1678-4170
                February 2019
                February 2019
                : 112
                : 2
                : 147-151
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Núcleo de Estudos da Saúde do Adolescente do Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brazil
                [2 ] Hospital Maternidade Therezinha de Jesus da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas e da Saúde de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG - Brazil
                Author notes
                Mailing Address: Nathalia Pereira Vizentin • Estrada do Cabuçu, 4601; casa 60. Postal Code 23017-250, Campo Grande, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brazil E-mail: nathalia.nut@ 123456hotmail.com , gabriell.aranha@ 123456gmail.com
                10.5935/abc.20180254
                6371827
                30570070

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivative License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited and the work is not changed in any way.

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