Blog
About

12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Self-aligned local electrolyte gating of 2D materials with nanoscale resolution

      Preprint

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          In the effort to make 2D materials-based devices smaller, faster, and more efficient, it is important to control charge carrier at lengths approaching the nanometer scale. Traditional gating techniques based on capacitive coupling through a gate dielectric cannot generate strong and uniform electric fields at this scale due to divergence of the fields in dielectrics. This field divergence limits the gating strength, boundary sharpness, and pitch size of periodic structures, and restricts possible geometries of local gates (due to wire packaging), precluding certain device concepts, such as plasmonics and transformation optics based on metamaterials. Here we present a new gating concept based on a dielectric-free self-aligned electrolyte technique that allows spatially modulating charges with nanometer resolution. We employ a combination of a solid-polymer electrolyte gate and an ion-impenetrable e-beam-defined resist mask to locally create excess charges on top of the gated surface. Electrostatic simulations indicate high carrier density variations of \(\Delta n =10^{14}\text{cm}^{-2}\) across a length of 10 nm at the mask boundaries on the surface of a 2D conductor, resulting in a sharp depletion region and a strong in-plane electric field of \(6\times10^8 \text{Vm}^{-1}\) across the so-created junction. We apply this technique to the 2D material graphene to demonstrate the creation of tunable p-n junctions for optoelectronic applications. We also demonstrate the spatial versatility and self-aligned properties of this technique by introducing a novel graphene thermopile photodetector.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 30

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

          The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Transformation optics using graphene.

            Metamaterials and transformation optics play substantial roles in various branches of optical science and engineering by providing schemes to tailor electromagnetic fields into desired spatial patterns. We report a theoretical study showing that by designing and manipulating spatially inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity patterns across a flake of graphene, one can have this material as a one-atom-thick platform for infrared metamaterials and transformation optical devices. Varying the graphene chemical potential by using static electric field yields a way to tune the graphene conductivity in the terahertz and infrared frequencies. Such degree of freedom provides the prospect of having different "patches" with different conductivities on a single flake of graphene. Numerous photonic functions and metamaterial concepts can be expected to follow from such a platform.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Strong light-matter interactions in heterostructures of atomically thin films.

              The isolation of various two-dimensional (2D) materials, and the possibility to combine them in vertical stacks, has created a new paradigm in materials science: heterostructures based on 2D crystals. Such a concept has already proven fruitful for a number of electronic applications in the area of ultrathin and flexible devices. Here, we expand the range of such structures to photoactive ones by using semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs)/graphene stacks. Van Hove singularities in the electronic density of states of TMDC guarantees enhanced light-matter interactions, leading to enhanced photon absorption and electron-hole creation (which are collected in transparent graphene electrodes). This allows development of extremely efficient flexible photovoltaic devices with photoresponsivity above 0.1 ampere per watt (corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of above 30%).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                2016-10-24
                Article
                1610.07646

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                Custom metadata
                cond-mat.mes-hall physics.optics

                Optical materials & Optics, Nanophysics

                Comments

                Comment on this article