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NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction: phthalates expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

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      Visualization of an Oxygen-deficient Bottom Water Circulation in Osaka Bay, Japan

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        Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

        To gain insight into the function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in mammals, we have cloned and characterized two PPAR alpha-related cDNAs (designated PPAR gamma and -delta, respectively) from mouse. The three PPAR isoforms display widely divergent patterns of expression during embryogenesis and in the adult. Surprisingly, PPAR gamma and -delta are not activated by pirinixic acid (Wy 14,643), a potent peroxisome proliferator and activator of PPAR alpha. However, PPAR gamma and -delta are activated by the structurally distinct peroxisome proliferator LY-171883 and linoleic acid, respectively, indicating that each of the isoforms can act as a regulated activator of transcription. These data suggest that tissue-specific responsiveness to peroxisome proliferators, including certain fatty acids, is in part a consequence of differential expression of multiple, pharmacologically distinct PPAR isoforms.
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          A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals, including some phthalate plasticizers, are weakly estrogenic.

          Sewage, a complex mixture of organic and inorganic chemicals, is considered to be a major source of environmental pollution. A random screen of 20 organic man-made chemicals present in liquid effluents revealed that half appeared able to interact with the estradiol receptor. This was demonstrated by their ability to inhibit binding of 17 beta-estradiol to the fish estrogen receptor. Further studies, using mammalian estrogen screens in vitro, revealed that the two phthalate esters butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and a food antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were estrogenic; however, they were all less estrogenic than the environmental estrogen octylphenol. Phthalate esters, used in the production of various plastics (including PVC), are among the most common industrial chemicals. Their ubiquity in the environment and tendency to bioconcentrate in animal fat are well known. Neither BBP nor DBP were able to act as antagonists, indicating that, in the presence of endogenous estrogens, their overall effect would be cumulative. Recently, it has been suggested that environmental estrogens may be etiological agents in several human diseases, including disorders of the male reproductive tract and breast and testicular cancers. The current finding that some phthalate compounds and some food additives are weakly estrogenic in vitro, needs to be supported by further studies on their effects in vivo before any conclusions can be made regarding their possible role in the development of these conditions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Reproductive Toxicology
            Reproductive Toxicology
            Elsevier BV
            08906238
            September 2002
            September 2002
            : 16
            : 5
            : 529-653
            10.1016/S0890-6238(02)00032-1
            © 2002

            http://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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