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      Why can a predator increase its consumption of prey when it is released along with a parasitoid?


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          The mixed release of predators and parasitoids to control a target pest can produce different results. In some cases, this mixed introduction can induce an increase in the predation rates of the pest and even, of the parasitoid. To explain this phenomenon, it has been hypothesized that the presence of parasitoids (revealed by their mobility or related products) and interspecific competition (parasitoid vs predator) could influence such rates of predation. Therefore, in the present study we tested the effect of parasitoid mobility, host hemolymph (produced by parasitoid host-feeding) and parasitoid species (competing vs. non-competing species of the predator) on the number of prey consumed by the predator. Additionally, to add weight to the results of the bioassays, we determined whether the gender of the predators and parasitoids induced an effect on prey consumption by the predator by performing three bioassays under randomized block designs. Our results showed that neither parasitoid mobility nor host hemolymph presence modified the number of whitefly nymphs preyed upon by the predator. However, the number of whitefly nymphs consumed was significantly higher when the predator was introduced together with the competing parasitoid species relative to treatments with the non-competing parasitoid. In addition, we found that the predator preyed upon more mobile than immobile parasitoids and more competing than non-competing parasitoids. As for predator gender, we found that female predators consumed more whitefly nymphs relative to male predators and wasp gender did not affect predation. Overall, our results suggest that interspecific competition may be a more important factor regulating predator consumption than parasitoid mobility or the presence of the host hemolymph.

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          Most cited references67

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          A brief guide to model selection, multimodel inference and model averaging in behavioural ecology using Akaike’s information criterion

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            Ecology of Infochemical Use by Natural Enemies in a Tritrophic Context

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              Integrated pest management: historical perspectives and contemporary developments.

              M Kogan (1998)
              Twenty five years after its first enunciation, IPM is recognized as one of the most robust constructs to arise in the agricultural sciences during the second half of the twentieth century. The history of IPM, however, can be traced back to the late 1800s when ecology was identified as the foundation for scientific plant protection. That history, since the advent of modern organosynthetic pesticides, acquired elements of drama, intrigue, jealousy, and controversy that mark the path of many great scientific or technological achievements. Evolution of IPM followed multiple paths in several countries and reached beyond the confines of entomological sciences. Time and space constraints, however, bias this review toward entomology, among the plant protection sciences, and give it an obvious US slant, despite the global impact of IPM.

                Author and article information

                Entomologia Generalis
                Journal of General and Applied Entomology - Zeitschrift für Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie
                Schweizerbart Science Publishers (Stuttgart, Germany http://www.schweizerbart.com/ mail@ 123456schweizerbart.de )
                27 September 2019
                23 December 2019
                : 39
                : 3-4
                : 205-219
                Biological Control Laboratory, Agronomy Department, University of Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco, México
                Author notes

                * Corresponding author: rramirez@ 123456cucba.udg.mx

                91769 0810
                Copyright © 2019 E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 70176 Stuttgart, Germany
                : 30 December 2018
                : 27 February 2019
                : 08 April 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 15
                Custom metadata

                Entomology,Parasitology,Ecology,Molecular biology,Pests, Diseases & Weeds
                Eretmocerus , Trialeurodes ,mixed release, Geocoris ,interactions


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