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      Coagulation Effect of Sugammadex as Determined by Thromboelastography in a Randomized Controlled Study of Surgical Patients

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Sugammadex has been shown to be associated with prolongation of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. However, it is not known whether it could be associated with enhancing postoperative hypocoagulation. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of 4 mg/kg of sugammadex on thromboelastography (TEG) parameters in surgical patients.

          Methods: After Institutional Review Board approval, a prospective double-blinded randomized controlled study was conducted between September 2016 and April 2017. Sixty adult patients scheduled for laparoscopic abdominal surgery were randomly allocated to receive either sugammadex 4 mg/kg (sugammadex group) or pyridostigmine 0.15 mg/kg in combination with glycopyrrolate 0.4 mg (control group) to reverse rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade at the completion of surgery. Blood samples were collected three time points; After the final suture of surgery (baseline) (T1), and at 10 min (T2) and 1 h (T3) after administration of the study drug. Whole blood was analyzed by TEG using TEG 5000 (Hemonetics Corp, Braintree, MA, USA). The primary endpoints were comparison of coagulation time (K, time to 20 mm clot amplitude), R (reaction time), alpha angle, and maximal amplitude (MA) between two groups.

          Results: Coagulation time was significantly prolonged in sugammadex group after 10 min of the study drug administration compared to control group (mean value 1.3 ± 0.4 vs. 1.5 ± 0.4, P = 0.03). However, R, alpha angle and MA value were not different between two groups.

          Conclusions: Sugammadex 4 mg/kg showed an increase in coagulation time in surgical patients. Physician should aware the potential enhancement of hypocoagulation by sugammadex in the setting of high risk of postoperative bleeding.

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          Most cited references 22

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          The distribution and function of phosphatidylserine in cellular membranes.

          Phosphatidylserine (PS) is the most abundant negatively charged phospholipid in eukaryotic membranes. PS directs the binding of proteins that bear C2 or gamma-carboxyglutamic domains and contributes to the electrostatic association of polycationic ligands with cellular membranes. Rather than being evenly distributed, PS is found preferentially in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane and in endocytic membranes. The loss of PS asymmetry is an early indicator of apoptosis and serves as a signal to initiate blood clotting. This review discusses the determinants and functional implications of the subcellular distribution and membrane topology of PS.
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            Use of Thromboelastography (TEG) for Detection of New Oral Anticoagulants.

            The clinical introduction of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) has stimulated the development of tests to quantify the effects of these drugs and manage complications associated with their use. Until recently, the only treatment choices for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in orthopedic surgical patients, as well as for stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation, were vitamin K antagonists, antiplatelet drugs, and unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. With the approval of NOACs, treatment options and consequent diagnostic challenges have expanded.
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              Effects of coagulation factor deficiency on plasma coagulation kinetics determined via thrombelastography: critical roles of fibrinogen and factors II, VII, X and XII.

              Thrombelastography (TEG) is used to assess coagulopathy. However, a comprehensive characterization of the effects of specific coagulation factor deficiencies and mode of activation on TEG data does not exist. Thrombelastography was performed for 15 min with control plasma and plasmas deficient (<1% activity) in Factors II, V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, or XIII activated with celite (0.28 mg ml(-1)) or tissue factor (TF, 0.1%) (n = 6 per condition). Additional fibrinogen concentration activity (75-345 mg dl(-1)) and Factor II, VII, X and XII activity-response relationships (1%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, 50% and 100% activity) were obtained (n = 8 per condition). Thrombelastography parameters included reaction time (R), angle (alpha), and clot strength (A, amplitude; G, elastic modulus). Celite activation of FXII-deficient plasma, TF activation of FVII-deficient and FX-deficient plasma, and celite or TF activation of FII-deficient plasma resulted in an almost undetectable clot. Compared to control values, celite activation of plasmas deficient in FXI, FIX and FVIII resulted in prolonged R and decreased alpha values, whereas TF activation resulted in decreased alpha values. Celite and TF activation of FV-deficient plasma resulted in prolonged R and decreased alpha values, whereas FXIII-deficient plasma had decreased alpha, A and G-values compared to control values. The fundamental finding of this study is that coagulation factor deficiencies affect TEG parameters in both a factor-dependent and activation-dependent fashion. Utilizing both celite and TF activation improves the diagnostic power of TEG. Based on such TEG data, more targeted administration of blood products could potentially help improve perioperative hemostatic outcomes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Med Sci
                Int J Med Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Medical Sciences
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1449-1907
                2021
                21 January 2021
                : 18
                : 6
                : 1318-1324
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, Korea.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: Hae Wone Chang, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Eulji University Hospital, 68 Hangeulbiseok-ro, Nowon-Gu, Seoul, Korea 01830. Phone: 82-2-970-8084, Fax: 82-2-972-0068; Email: helen@ 123456eulji.ac.kr

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                ijmsv18p1318
                10.7150/ijms.42563
                7893551
                © The author(s)

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). See http://ivyspring.com/terms for full terms and conditions.

                Categories
                Research Paper

                Medicine

                sugammadex, coagulation, thromboelastography, laparoscopic surgery

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