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      Nutritional Management of Chronic Kidney Disease

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      New England Journal of Medicine
      New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)

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          Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status.

          Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr), and ESRD (CrCl <10 ml/min). Secondary end points were dietary protein intake, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, serum albumin, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Compared with the control group, decline in CrCl was slower with bicarbonate supplementation (5.93 versus 1.88 ml/min 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001). Patients supplemented with bicarbonate were significantly less likely to experience rapid progression (9 versus 45%; relative risk 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fewer patients supplemented with bicarbonate developed ESRD (6.5 versus 33%; relative risk 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.40; P < 0.001). Nutritional parameters improved significantly with bicarbonate supplementation, which was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improves nutritional status among patients with CKD.
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            Selective vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol for reduction of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes (VITAL study): a randomised controlled trial.

            Despite treatment with renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors, patients with diabetes have increased risk of progressive renal failure that correlates with albuminuria. We aimed to assess whether paricalcitol could be used to reduce albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy. In this multinational, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria who were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients were assigned (1:1:1) by computer-generated randomisation sequence to receive 24 weeks’ treatment with placebo,1 μg/day paricalcitol, or 2 μg/day paricalcitol. The primary endpoint was the percentage change in geometric mean urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) from baseline to last measurement during treatment for the combined paricalcitol groups versus the placebo group. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00421733. Between February, 2007, and October, 2008, 281 patients were enrolled and assigned to receive placebo(n=93), 1 μg paricalcitol (n=93), or 2 μg paricalcitol (n=95); 88 patients on placebo, 92 on 1 μg paricalcitol, and 92 on2 μg paricalcitol received at least one dose of study drug, and had UACR data at baseline and at least one timepoint during treatment, and so were included in the primary analysis. Change in UACR was: –3% (from 61 to 60 mg/mmol;95% CI –16 to 13) in the placebo group; –16% (from 62 to 51 mg/mmol; –24 to –9) in the combined paricalcitol groups, with a between-group difference versus placebo of –15% (95% CI –28 to 1; p=0.071); –14% (from 63 to 54 mg/mmol; –24 to –1) in the 1 μg paricalcitol group, with a between-group difference versus placebo of –11%(95% CI –27 to 8; p=0.23); and –20% (from 61 to 49 mg/mmol; –30 to –8) in the 2 μg paricalcitol group, with a between-group difference versus placebo of –18% (95% CI –32 to 0; p=0.053). Patients on 2 μg paricalcitol showed a nearly, sustained reduction in UACR, ranging from –18% to –28% (p=0.014 vs placebo). Incidence of hypercalcaemia,adverse events, and serious adverse events was similar between groups receiving paricalcitol versus placebo. Addition of 2 μg/day paricalcitol to RAAS inhibition safely lowers residual albuminuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and could be a novel approach to lower residual renal risk in diabetes. Abbott.
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              Assessment of Global Kidney Health Care Status.

              Kidney disease is a substantial worldwide clinical and public health problem, but information about available care is limited.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS)
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                November 02 2017
                November 02 2017
                : 377
                : 18
                : 1765-1776
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1700312
                29091561
                339c91d9-9b3c-41d5-b87c-1955ed1a62b4
                © 2017
                History

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