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      The Heart in Human Dystrophinopathies

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          Abstract

          Dystrophinopathies are due to mutations in the dystrophin gene on chromosome Xp21.1 and comprise the allelic entities Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) and X-linked dilative cardiomyopathy (XLDCM). In all three entities, the heart is affected to various degrees, depending on the stage of the disease and the type of the mutation (cardiac involvement, CI). The pathoanatomic evidence of CI in dystrophinopathies is the replacement of myocardium by connective tissue or fat. In DMD/BMD, the left ventricular posterobasal and lateral walls are most extensively affected, sparing the right ventricle and the atrium. Degree and dynamics of CI vary among the three entities. In DMD/BMD, CI usually remains subclinical in the early stages of the disease. Typical initial manifestations of CI in DMD/BMD are sinus tachycardia, tall R1 in V1, prominent Q in I, aVL, V6 or in II, III, and aVF, increased QT dispersion and possibly autonomic dysfunction. Initially, echocardiography is normal or shows regional wall motion abnormalities in areas of fibrosis. With spreading of fibrosis, left ventricular dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmias additionally occur. In the final stages of the disease, systolic function may lead to heart failure and sudden death. Subclinical or clinical CI is present in about 90% of the DMD/BMD patients but is the cause of death in only 20% of the DMD and 50% of the BMD patients. XLDCM is a rapidly progressive, almost exclusively myocardial disorder, starting in teenage males as heart failure due to dilative cardiomyopathy (CMP), leading to death from intractable heart failure within 1–2 years after diagnosis. Therapy of arrhythmias and CMP in all three disorders follows the established cardiological recommendations. Due to its protective effect, ACE inhibitors are recommended already at the early stages of the disease. β-Blockers may be an additional option if indicated.

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          Most cited references35

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          The incidence and evolution of cardiomyopathy in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

          To assess the incidence, nature and evolution of cardiac disease in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, 328 patients were studied between 1976 and 1987 for periods varying from 3 to 11 years. Patients underwent regular clinical examination, electrocardiography, echocardiography and radiological assessment. Pre-clinical cardiac involvement was found in 25% of patients under 6 years old increasing to 59% between the ages of 6 and 10 years and then declining in incidence with age. Clinically apparent cardiomyopathy is first evident after 10 years of age and increases in incidence with age, being present in all patients over 18 years of age. Its clinical impact is discussed.
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            Metabolic profiling of genetic disorders: a multitissue (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and pattern recognition study into dystrophic tissue.

            A principal problem in understanding the functional genomics of a pathology is the wide-reaching biochemical effects that occur when the expression of a given protein is altered. To complement the information available to bioinformatics through genomic and proteomic approaches, a novel method of providing metabolite profiles for a disease is suggested, using pattern recognition coupled with (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Using this technique the mdx mouse, a model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was examined. Dystrophic tissue had distinct metabolic profiles not only for cardiac and other muscle tissues, but also in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, where the role of dystrophin is still controversial. These metabolic ratios were expressed crudely as biomarker ratios to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach at separating dystrophic from control tissue (cardiac (taurine/creatine): mdx = 2.08 +/- 0.04, control 1.55 +/- 0.04, P < 0.005; cortex (phosphocholine/taurine): mdx = 1.28 +/- 0.12, control = 0.83 +/- 0.05, P < 0.01; cerebellum (glutamate/creatine): mdx = 0.49 +/- 0.03, control = 0.34 +/- 0.03, P < 0.01). This technique produced new metabolic biomarkers for following disease progression but also demonstrated that many metabolic pathways are perturbed in dystrophic tissue. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
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              Prognostic value of electrocardiograms, ventricular late potentials, ventricular arrhythmias, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

              Myocardial involvement is a common finding in patients with Duchenne-type muscular dystrophy (DMD). Nevertheless, the prognostic values of standard electrocardiogram (ECG), ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular late potentials (LPs), and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction have not been extensively investigated. Eighty-four patients with DMD (aged 18.6 +/- 4.8 years) underwent standard and signal-averaged electrocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and echocardiography. The prevalence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, frequent ventricular premature complexes, LPs, and LV systolic dysfunction was 71%, 32%, 28%, and 35%, respectively. Median follow-up was 76 months (range 5 to 106). The mortality rate in the follow-up period was 27%. The typical DMD electrocardiographic alterations, ventricular arrhythmic pattern, and LPs were not predictors of mortality. In contrast, the presence of LV systolic dysfunction detected on echocardiography was a powerful predictor of mortality in the follow-up period (p = 0.013, hazard ratio 3.14, 95% confidence interval 1.27 to 7.79). Thus, echocardiographic assessment of LV systolic dysfunction provides prognostic information in patients with DMD. Electrocardiographic alterations, ventricular arrhythmias, and LPs have no prognostic value in predicting mortality in these patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2003
                February 2003
                24 February 2003
                : 99
                : 1
                : 1-19
                Affiliations
                aNeurological Department, bSecond Medical Department, Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria
                Article
                68446 Cardiology 2003;99:1–19
                10.1159/000068446
                12589117
                339ff499-a6bc-4c41-83c9-fe2856b192a8
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 20 July 2002
                : 23 September 2002
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, References: 154, Pages: 19
                Categories
                Review

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Duchenne muscular dystrophy,Myopathy,Noncompaction,Neuromuscular disorders,Becker muscular dystrophy,Dystrophin,Cardiomyopathy,Arrhythmia

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