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      Stanford-A acute aortic dissection, inflammation, and metalloproteinases: a review.

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          Abstract

          Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening disease with an incidence of about 2.6-3.6 cases per 100,000/year. Depending on the site of rupture, AAD is classified as Stanford-A when the ascending aortic thoracic tract and/or the arch are involved, and Stanford-B when the descending thoracic aorta and/or aortic abdominal tract are targeted. It was recently shown that inflammatory pathways underlie aortic rupture in both type A and type B Stanford AAD. An immune infiltrate has been found within the middle and outer tunics of dissected aortic specimens. It has also been observed that the recall and activation of macrophages inside the middle tunic are key events in the early phases of AAD. Macrophages are able to release metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-inflammatory cytokines which, in turn, give rise to matrix degradation and neoangiogenesis. An imbalance between the production of MMPs and MMP tissue inhibitors is pivotal in the extracellular matrix degradation underlying aortic wall remodelling in dissections occurring both in inherited conditions and in atherosclerosis. Among MMPs, MMP-12 is considered a specific marker of aortic wall disease, whatever the genetic predisposition may be. The aim of this review is, therefore, to take a close look at the immune-inflammatory mechanisms underlying Stanford-A AAD.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Ann. Med.
          Annals of medicine
          Informa UK Limited
          1365-2060
          0785-3890
          2015
          : 47
          : 6
          Affiliations
          [1 ] a Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine , Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Internal Medicine Unit, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
          [2 ] b Department of Biology and Biotechnology' Charles Darwin' , Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
          [3 ] c Department of Anaesthesiology , Critical Medicine and PainTreatment, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Policlinico Umberto Primo, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
          [4 ] d Department of Radiology , Oncology, and Anatomy& Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, Policlinico Umberto Primo, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
          [5 ] e Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine,Faculty of Medicine and Psychology , Vascular Surgery Unit, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome , Rome , Italy.
          Article
          10.3109/07853890.2015.1073346
          26339779
          33a17c46-f655-4e70-83f3-52cd6ce55eaf
          History

          Stanford-A,metalloproteinases,cytokines,Acute aortic dissection

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