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      The Bioactivity of Plasma Factors in Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

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          Abstract

          Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a devastating form of nephrotic syndrome, often leading to end-stage renal failure after the failure of a succession of highly toxic therapies. It has long been thought to be caused by a circulating factor(s) that may be produced by cells of the immune system. Much research has focused on identifying such factor(s), including the development of a promising in vitro assay, which estimates glomerular permeability based on the swelling of isolated glomeruli in response to patients’ plasma. This assay has also been used as the basis of testing plasma fractions for permeability activity, with no specific factor yet identified. Other studies have attempted to replicate proteinuria in whole animals, by injecting plasma or plasma fractions from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis patients, with inconsistent results. More recently there has been evidence that there may be either inhibitory or missing factor(s) in plasma, with respect to permeability. An additional major biological advance is a growing appreciation of the podocyte as the target cell in this disease, and an understanding of the key molecules involved. Putting together this knowledge, with the latest technological advances in protein identification, provides promising avenues towards finally solving the basis of this enigmatic disease.

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          Most cited references 16

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          TRPC6 is a glomerular slit diaphragm-associated channel required for normal renal function.

          Progressive kidney failure is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of disorders. Podocyte foot processes and the interposed glomerular slit diaphragm are essential components of the permeability barrier in the kidney. Mutations in genes encoding structural proteins of the podocyte lead to the development of proteinuria, resulting in progressive kidney failure and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Here, we show that the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) ion channel is expressed in podocytes and is a component of the glomerular slit diaphragm. We identified five families with autosomal dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in which disease segregated with mutations in the gene TRPC6 on chromosome 11q. Two of the TRPC6 mutants had increased current amplitudes. These data show that TRPC6 channel activity at the slit diaphragm is essential for proper regulation of podocyte structure and function.
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            Circulating factor associated with increased glomerular permeability to albumin in recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

            Heavy proteinuria and progressive renal injury recur after transplantation in up to 40 percent of patients with renal failure caused by idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. A circulating factor may be responsible for this recurrence. To determine whether patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have a circulating factor capable of causing glomerular injury, we tested serum samples from 100 patients with the disorder in an in vitro assay of glomerular permeability to albumin. Of the 56 patients who had undergone renal transplantation, 33 had recurrences. Sixty-four patients, many of whom had undergone transplantation, were being treated with dialysis. Thirty-one patients with other renal diseases and nine normal subjects were also studied. The 33 patients with recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis after transplantation had a higher mean (+/-SE) value for permeability to albumin (0.47+/-0.06) than the normal subjects (0.06+/-0.07) or the patients who did not have recurrences (0.14+/-0.06). After plasmapheresis in six patients with recurrences, the permeability was reduced (from 0.79+/-0.06 to 0.10+/-0.05, P = 0.008), and proteinuria was significantly decreased. Patients with corticosteroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome or with membranous nephropathy after transplantation had low levels of serum activity. The circulating factor bound to protein A and hydrophobic-interaction columns and had an apparent molecular mass of about 50 kd. A circulating factor found in some patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is associated with recurrent disease after renal transplantation and may be responsible for initiating the renal injury.
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              Pathogenesis of lipoid nephrosis: a disorder of T-cell function.

               J Shalhoub (1974)
              Clinical observations suggest that lipoid nephrosis is produced by a systemic abnormality of T-cell function resulting in the secretion of a circulating chemical mediator toxic to an immunologically innocent glomerular basement membrane. The lack of evidence of a humoral antibody response, remission induced by measles which modifies cell-mediated immunity, the therapeutic benefits of steroids and cyclophosphamide which also abate cell-mediated responses, and the occurrence of this syndrome in Hodgkin's disease support this hypothesis. The susceptibility of untreated patients to pneumococcal infections may be of primary or secondary pathogenetic importance. Taken together, the data suggest that this syndrome is a clinical expression of a self-limited primary immune-deficiency disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2006
                August 2006
                26 May 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : e1-e5
                Affiliations
                Academic and Children’s Renal Unit, University of Bristol, Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK
                Article
                93259 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;104:e1–e5
                10.1159/000093259
                16707909
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93259
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