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      Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats Translated title: L’haemonchotolérance chez les chèvres naines d’Afrique de l’Ouest : contribution à une lutte contre les helminthes durable et sans anthelminthiques chez les chèvres naines nigérianes gérées de manière traditionnelle

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          West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria’s humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture.

          Translated abstract

          Les chèvres naines d’Afrique de l’Ouest (NAO) sont extrêmement importantes dans l’économie villageoise de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, mais on connait peu sur leur biologie, écologie et capacité à faire face aux infections par des nématodes gastrointestinaux (NGI). Nous résumons ici l’histoire de cette race et expliquons son importance économique en Afrique de l’Ouest rurale. Nous passons en revue les travaux récents montrant que les chèvres NAO nigérianes sont très trypanotolérantes et résistent aussi aux infections par Haemonchus contortus plus efficacement que les autres races de chèvre domestique (haemonchotolérance). Nous croyons que l’haemonchotolérance est en grande partie responsable des infections de faible niveau par NGI et de l’absence d’hémonchose clinique chez les chèvres NAO dans les conditions de terrain, qu’elle a contribué à un système à petite échelle de chèvre d’élevage dans la zone humide du Nigeria relativement réussi et durable, qu’elle est basée sur l’immunologie et qu’elle est génétiquement contrôlée. Si on peut démontrer quel’haemonchotolérance est contrôlée génétiquement, il devrait être possible d’exploiter les gènes sous-jacents pour améliorer la résistance aux NGI chez les races de chèvres productrices de laine ou de lait, dont la plupart sont très sensibles aux infections à nématodes. La résistance génétique aux NGI et aux infections à trypanosomes rendrait inutile la chimiothérapie, qui est coûteuse et inabordable pour la plupart des petits agriculteurs en Afrique, et représente un coût important des élevages de chèvres dans les pays plus développés. L’introgression d’allèles de résistance dans les races sensibles par sélection conventionnelle ou la transgénèse pourraient être utilisées pour développer de nouvelles races résistantes aux parasites mais très productives, ou pour améliorer la résistance des races existantes, ce qui serait utile à l’économie rurale locale en Afrique de l’Ouest ainsi qu’à l’agriculture caprine mondiale.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Influence of host nutrition on the development and consequences of nematode parasitism in ruminants.

          Control of gastrointestinal nematodes of ruminants is based largely on use of anthelmintics combined, where practical, with pasture management. The increasing prevalence of resistance to anthelmintics has led to the search for alternative sustainable control strategies. Here, we consider how nutrition, as a short-term alternative, can influence the host--parasite relationship in ruminants, using gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep as the model system. Nutrition can affect the ability of the host to cope with the consequences of parasitism and to contain and eventually to overcome parasitism. It can also affect the parasite population through the intake of antiparasitic compounds.
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            Goat-nematode interactions: think differently.

            Goats (caprine) and sheep (ovine) are infected with the same principal gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) species, which provoke similar pathological changes and economic consequences. However, until now, the majority of data on host-parasite interactions have been accumulated from ovine studies. This article aims to emphasize the need for specific caprine studies. It is hypothesized that, owing to divergent evolutionary processes, sheep and goats have developed two different strategies to regulate GIN infections, respectively, based on immune response versus feeding behavior. Generation of additional comparative data should result in a better understanding of the possible trade-offs between these two basic regulatory processes. Goat studies should also help to avoid past errors in the control of GIN species owing to the lack of relevant information. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Genetic and phenotypic differences between isolates of Haemonchus contortus in Australia.

              We believe this study is the first to consider the genetic and phenotypic divergence between isolates of Haemonchus contortus in Australia. Microsatellite markers have been used to investigate genetic divergence, whilst phenotypic divergence has been considered through individual worm morphology, isolate life history traits and the effect of isolates upon the host. The results are discussed in the context of the likely introduction of H. contortus to Australia, its recent isolation, and the characteristics of sheep and goat farming which might act to either isolate or distribute parasites. We conclude that there is significant observable genetic divergence between isolates of H. contortus in Australia. The divergence may have been under-estimated in this study due to a variety of factors. Phenotypic divergence is also observed, and potentially has significant implications for both economic losses due to haemonchosis on individual properties and for decisions regarding the regulation of stock movements in Australia.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                10 February 2015
                : 22
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2015/01 )
                [1 ] Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka Nigeria
                [2 ] Department of Applied & Environmental Biology, Rivers State University of Science and Technology Port Harcourt Nigeria
                [3 ] School of Biology, University of Nottingham, University Park Nottingham NG7 2RD UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: jerzy.behnke@ 123456nottingham.ac.uk
                parasite130113 10.1051/parasite/2015006
                © S.N. Chiejina et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 10, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 53, Pages: 11
                Novel Approaches to the Control of Parasites in Goats and Sheep. Invited editors: Hervé Hoste, Smaragda Sotiraki and Michel Alvinerie
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