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      Improvement of oral bioavailability of lovastatin by using nanostructured lipid carriers

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          Abstract

          Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) have been one of the systems of choice for improving the oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. In the present study, lovastatin (LVT)-loaded NLCs (LVT-NLCs) were successfully prepared by hot high-pressure homogenization method with high entrapment efficiency, drug loading, and satisfactory particle size distribution. The particles had almost spherical and uniform shapes and were well dispersed with a particle size of <50 nm (23.5±1.6 nm) and a low polydispersity index (0.17±0.05 mV). The result of stability showed that the LVT-NLCs dispersion maintained excellent stability without exhibiting any aggregation, precipitation, or phase separation at 4°C for 6 months of storage. The LVT release data from all developed solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and NLCs were best fitted to a Ritger–Peppas kinetic model (0.9832 and 0.9783 for NLCs and SLNs, respectively). This indicated that the release of LVT from the SLNs and NLCs was due to a combination of drug diffusion and erosion from the lipid matrix. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results show that LVT-NLCs were better compared to free drug, which could be attributed to an increase in bioavailability.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Nanostructured lipid matrices for improved microencapsulation of drugs.

          At the beginning of the nineties solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been introduced as a novel nanoparticulate delivery system produced from solid lipids. Potential problems associated with SLN such as limited drug loading capacity, adjustment of drug release profile and potential drug expulsion during storage are avoided or minimised by the new generation, the nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). NLC are produced by mixing solid lipids with spatially incompatible lipids leading to special structures of the lipid matrix, i.e. three types of NLC: (I) the imperfect structured type, (II) the structureless type and (III) the multiple type. A special preparation process-applicable to NLC but also SLN-allows the production of highly concentrated particle dispersions (>30-95%). Potential applications as drug delivery system are described.
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            Development and evaluation of penciclovir-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for topical delivery.

             F Cao,  Jing Cui,  Z. Song (2009)
            The objective of this investigation was to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of penciclovir and evaluate the potential of SLNs as the carrier of penciclovir for topical delivery. Penciclovir-loaded SLNs were prepared by a double (W/O/W) emulsion technique. The SLNs presented spherical with the mean diameter of 254.9 nm. The entrapment efficiency, drug loading and zeta potential were 92.40%, 4.62% and -25.0 mV, respectively. DSC study showed that penciclovir encapsulated in SLNs was in the amorphous form. The cumulative amount of penciclovir penetrated through excised rat skin from SLNs was more than 2-fold that of the commercial cream as a control at 12h after administration. There was no significant difference of penciclovir content deposited in epidermis between the cream and SLNs administrated for 2, 6 and 12h, while SLNs increased the cumulative uptake of penciclovir in dermis significantly at the same intervals. Microscopic pictures showed that the interaction between SLNs and the skin surface changed the apparent morphology of stratum corneum and broke the close conjugation of corneocyte layers, which was the possible reason that SLNs increased the permeation of penciclovir into skin dermis. It can be concluded from our study that SLNs provide a good skin targeting effect and may be a promising carrier for topical delivery of penciclovir.
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              Effect of lipid core material on characteristics of solid lipid nanoparticles designed for oral lymphatic delivery.

              Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are essentially composed of triglyceride(s) that orient to form a polar core with polar heads oriented toward the aqueous phase, resembling chylomicrons. The composition of such SLNs may alter the course of drug absorption predominantly to and through lymphatic route and regions, presumably following a transcellular path of lipid absorption, especially by enterocytes and polar epithelial cells of the intestine. SLNs were prepared using stearic acid, glycerol monostearate, tristearin, and Compritol 888 ATO by solvent diffusion method using demineralized double-distilled water as the dispersion medium. The SLNs were characterized for shape, size, zeta potential, and percentage drug content and its release. The characterization of SLNs suggests that Compritol 888 ATO-based nanoparticles were heterogeneous with better drug-loading and release characteristics as compared with the other formulations. The selected products were studied for in vivo absorption and hence bioavailability by measure of area under the blood plasma curve plotted as a function of time. Periodic lymphatic concentration of drug following oral administration of respective formulations was also determined by mesenteric duct cannulation and collection of samples. The comparative study conducted on methotrexate (MTX)-bearing SLNs revealed that the formulation based on Compritol 888 ATO could noticeably improve the oral bioavailability of MTX, presumably following SLNs constituting lipid digestion and co-absorption through lymphatic transport and route.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                18 September 2015
                : 9
                : 5269-5275
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Clinical Medical College of Soochow University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Tongren Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Daxin Zhou, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, No 1111, Xianxia Road, Changning District, Shanghai 200036, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 21 5203 9999, Email daxinzhou@ 123456126.com
                Article
                dddt-9-5269
                10.2147/DDDT.S90016
                4583105
                © 2015 Zhou and Zhou. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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