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      Solid Suspension Flow Batteries Using Earth Abundant Materials

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      ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces

      American Chemical Society (ACS)

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          Abstract

          The technical features of solid-electrode batteries (e.g., high energy density, relatively low capital cost ($/kWh)) and flow batteries (e.g., long cycle life, design flexibility) are highly complementary. It is therefore extremely desirable to integrate their advantages into a single storage device for large-scale energy storage applications where lifetime cost ($/kW-h/cycle) is an extremely important parameter. Here, we demonstrate a non-Li-based-flow battery concept that replaces the aqueous solution of redox-active molecules found in typical redox flow batteries with suspensions of hydrophilic carbon particles ("solid suspension electrodes") coated with earth-abundant redox-active metals. The solid suspension electrodes charge by depositing earth-abundant redox-active metals onto the carbon particle suspension, which are then stripped during discharge operation. The electrical contact to the solid suspension electrodes is fed through fixed redox-inert hydrophobic carbon current collectors through "contact charge transfer" mechanism. The hydrophobicity of the current collectors prevents direct plating of redox-active metals onto their surfaces. The above concept was successfully used to demonstrate several non-Li-based battery chemistries including zinc-copper, zinc-manganese oxide, zinc-bromine, and zinc-sulfur, providing a pathway for potential applications in medium and large-scale electrical energy storage.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
          ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
          American Chemical Society (ACS)
          1944-8244
          1944-8252
          January 11 2016
          January 12 2016
          : 8
          : 3
          : 1759-1765
          Article
          10.1021/acsami.5b09515
          26727225
          © 2016
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