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      Optimal control analysis of a COVID-19 and tuberculosis co-dynamics model

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          Abstract

          Tuberculosis and COVID-19 are among the diseases with major global public health concern and great socio-economic impact. Co-infection of these two diseases is inevitable due to their geographical overlap, a potential double blow as their clinical similarities could hamper strategies to mitigate their spread and transmission dynamics. To theoretically investigate the impact of control measures on their long-term dynamics, we formulate and analyze a mathematical model for the co-infection of COVID-19 and tuberculosis. Basic properties of the tuberculosis only and COVID-19 only sub-models are investigated as well as bifurcation analysis (possibility of the co-existence of the disease-free and endemic equilibria). The disease-free and endemic equilibria are globally asymptotically stable. The model is extended into an optimal control system by incorporating five control measures. These are: tuberculosis awareness campaign, prevention against COVID-19 (e.g., face mask, physical distancing), control against co-infection, tuberculosis and COVID-19 treatment. Five strategies which are combinations of the control measures are investigated. Strategy B which focuses on COVID-19 prevention, treatment and control of co-infection yields a better outcome in terms of the number of COVID-19 cases prevented at a lower percentage of the total cost of this strategy.

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          Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China

          Abstract Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. Methods We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. Results The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. Conclusions During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.)
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            A Novel Coronavirus from Patients with Pneumonia in China, 2019

            Summary In December 2019, a cluster of patients with pneumonia of unknown cause was linked to a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China. A previously unknown betacoronavirus was discovered through the use of unbiased sequencing in samples from patients with pneumonia. Human airway epithelial cells were used to isolate a novel coronavirus, named 2019-nCoV, which formed a clade within the subgenus sarbecovirus, Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. Different from both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, 2019-nCoV is the seventh member of the family of coronaviruses that infect humans. Enhanced surveillance and further investigation are ongoing. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China and the National Major Project for Control and Prevention of Infectious Disease in China.)
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              A new coronavirus associated with human respiratory disease in China

              Emerging infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Zika virus disease, present a major threat to public health 1–3 . Despite intense research efforts, how, when and where new diseases appear are still a source of considerable uncertainty. A severe respiratory disease was recently reported in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. As of 25 January 2020, at least 1,975 cases had been reported since the first patient was hospitalized on 12 December 2019. Epidemiological investigations have suggested that the outbreak was associated with a seafood market in Wuhan. Here we study a single patient who was a worker at the market and who was admitted to the Central Hospital of Wuhan on 26 December 2019 while experiencing a severe respiratory syndrome that included fever, dizziness and a cough. Metagenomic RNA sequencing 4 of a sample of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from the patient identified a new RNA virus strain from the family Coronaviridae, which is designated here ‘WH-Human 1’ coronavirus (and has also been referred to as ‘2019-nCoV’). Phylogenetic analysis of the complete viral genome (29,903 nucleotides) revealed that the virus was most closely related (89.1% nucleotide similarity) to a group of SARS-like coronaviruses (genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Sarbecovirus) that had previously been found in bats in China 5 . This outbreak highlights the ongoing ability of viral spill-over from animals to cause severe disease in humans.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Inform Med Unlocked
                Inform Med Unlocked
                Informatics in Medicine Unlocked
                Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                2352-9148
                15 January 2022
                15 January 2022
                : 100849
                Affiliations
                [a ]Département de Mathématiques, UFR des Sciences et Technologies, Université Assane Seck de Ziguinchor, BP 523, Ziguinchor, Senegal
                [b ]LERSTAD, UFR Sciences appliquÉes et Technologie, BP 234, Université Gaston Berger, Saint-Louis, Senegal
                [c ]Departement de Mathematiques, UFR des Sciences et Technologies, Universite de Thies, Thies, Senegal
                [d ]College of Petroleum Engineering and Geosciences (CPG), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
                [e ]Mathematics Department, University of Dar es Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
                [f ]School of Computational and Communication Sciences and Engineering, Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 447, Arusha, Tanzania
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author.
                Article
                S2352-9148(22)00004-1 100849
                10.1016/j.imu.2022.100849
                8759807
                35071729
                33bee473-e52c-490f-baa4-b3969cc84632
                © 2022 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 9 December 2021
                : 2 January 2022
                : 2 January 2022
                Categories
                Article

                bifurcation,co-infection,covid-19,optimal control,reproduction number,tuberculosis

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