Background: Persistence of acute kidney disease (AKD) after an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with adverse outcomes. Multiple factors contribute to AKD after AKI, but the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) remains controversial. We examined if acute exposure to an ACEI/ARB associates with persistent AKD in survivors of AKI. Methods: Multicenter prospective cohort study of patients whose hospitalization was complicated by AKI and who attended specialized AKI follow-up clinics between 2013 and 2018. Acute exposure was defined as ACEI/ARB exposure for ≥48 h before or during the AKI episode. The primary outcome was AKD (serum creatinine ≥1.5 times above pre-AKI baseline) at the first clinic visit. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for potential confounders. Results: We included 345 survivors of AKI, 112 with persistent AKD at the first outpatient visit. Among 163 patients who were prescribed an ACEI/ARB before hospitalization, only 23% were discharged on an ACEI/ARB. There was no difference in the rate of AKD in patients discharged versus not discharged on an ACEI/ARB (12.5 vs. 15.0%, p = 0.530). Of the patients with AKD, 22 (19.6%) patients had acute ACEI/ARB exposure during the hospitalization. In fully adjusted models, acute exposure to an ACEI/ARB was not associated with AKD at the time of first clinic visit (median [interquartile range] 33 [18–54] days from hospital discharge). Conclusion: Acute exposure to an ACEI/ARB before or during an episode of AKI was not associated with persistent AKD at the time of first clinic visit suggesting that the receipt of such agents does not impede kidney recovery following AKI. Contrary to prevailing recommendations and current practice, the continued administration of an ACEI/ARB during an episode of AKI or initiation of these agents prior to discharge may be safe.