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      Salivary gland diseases in children

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          Abstract

          Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment.

          The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized.

          Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience.

          Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach.

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          Most cited references 249

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          Classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome: a revised version of the European criteria proposed by the American-European Consensus Group.

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          Classification criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS) were developed and validated between 1989 and 1996 by the European Study Group on Classification Criteria for SS, and broadly accepted. These have been re-examined by consensus group members, who have introduced some modifications, more clearly defined the rules for classifying patients with primary or secondary SS, and provided more precise exclusion criteria.
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            The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity.

            To analyse preterm birth rates worldwide to assess the incidence of this public health problem, map the regional distribution of preterm births and gain insight into existing assessment strategies. Data on preterm birth rates worldwide were extracted during a previous systematic review of published and unpublished data on maternal mortality and morbidity reported between 1997 and 2002. Those data were supplemented through a complementary search covering the period 2003-2007. Region-specific multiple regression models were used to estimate the preterm birth rates for countries with no data. We estimated that in 2005, 12.9 million births, or 9.6% of all births worldwide, were preterm. Approximately 11 million (85%) of these preterm births were concentrated in Africa and Asia, while about 0.5 million occurred in each of Europe and North America (excluding Mexico) and 0.9 million in Latin America and the Caribbean. The highest rates of preterm birth were in Africa and North America (11.9% and 10.6% of all births, respectively), and the lowest were in Europe (6.2%). Preterm birth is an important perinatal health problem across the globe. Developing countries, especially those in Africa and southern Asia, incur the highest burden in terms of absolute numbers, although a high rate is also observed in North America. A better understanding of the causes of preterm birth and improved estimates of the incidence of preterm birth at the country level are needed to improve access to effective obstetric and neonatal care.
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              Mumps.

              Mumps is a common childhood infection caused by the mumps virus. The hallmark of infection is swelling of the parotid gland. Aseptic meningitis and encephalitis are common complications of mumps together with orchitis and oophoritis, which can arise in adult men and women, respectively; other complications include deafness and pancreatitis. Clinical diagnosis can be based on the classic parotid swelling; however, this feature is not present in all cases of mumps and can also occur in various other disorders. Laboratory diagnosis is based on isolation of virus, detection of viral nucleic acid, or serological confirmation (generally presence of IgM mumps antibodies). Mumps is vaccine-preventable, and one dose of mumps vaccine is about 80% effective against the disease. Routine vaccination has proven highly effective in reducing the incidence of mumps, and is presently used by most developed countries; however, there have been outbreaks of disease in vaccinated populations. In 2005, a large epidemic peaked in the UK, and in 2006 the American midwest had several outbreaks. In both countries, the largest proportion of cases was in young adults. In the UK, susceptible cohorts too old to have been vaccinated and too young to have been exposed to natural infections were the primary cause of the mumps epidemic. In the USA, effectiveness and uptake in combination appear not to have been sufficient to obtain herd immunity for mumps in populations such as college students.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg
                GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg
                GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg
                GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                1865-1011
                01 December 2014
                2014
                : 13
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Heinrich Iro, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, Waldstrasse 1, 91054 Erlangen, Germany, Phone: +49 9131-8533341, Fax: +49 9131-8533833, E-mail: Heinrich.Iro@ 123456uk-erlangen.de
                Article
                cto000109 Doc06 urn:nbn:de:0183-cto0001094
                10.3205/cto000109
                4273167
                Copyright © 2014 Iro et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Article

                Surgery

                therapy, tumors, inflammation, children, salivary glands

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