Forty-one patients with esodeviation (82 eyes) were subjected first to 1% tropicamide and retinoscopy and then to retinoscopy after the use of 0.5% to 1% atropine sulfate in children with esodeviation up to the age of 5 years. The ages ranged from 2 months to 5 years, and the esodeviation ranged from 5 to 50 diopters (D). There were 20 male and 21 female patients. The average difference in the cycloplegia showed +.80 D more hyperopia with atropine than with tropicamide therapy. This was believed to be important, particularly in the young age group with esodeviation.