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      The efficacy of low-dose tadalafil in patients undergoing hemodialysis with end-stage renal disease

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          Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a disorder that is frequently observed in people with chronic kidney disease who undergo hemodialysis (HD). In the context of evidence-based medicine, we aimed to investigate the effect of low-dose tadalafil on sexual function in patients undergoing HD.

          Methods: The medical records of 30 males (aged 29–65 years) with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on a HD program, and who had received 5 mg tadalafil twice weekly, were retrospectively evaluated. Changes in erectile and ejaculatory function were evaluated using the International Erectile Function Index questionnaire, the Erection Hardness Scale (EHS), and the Male Sexual Health Questionnaire (MSHQ).

          Results: The mean age of the patients was 47.6 ± 10.1 years, their mean body mass index was 24.3 ± 4.2 kg/m 2, their mean hemoglobin was 11.9 ± 0.9 g/dL, and their mean creatinine clearance was 5.8 ± 1.1 mL/min. At the third month of treatment, 36.6% of the patients had no ED, 40% had mild ED, 10% had mild-to-moderate ED, and 13.3% had moderate ED. The mean MSHQ scores ( p < .05) and the mean EHS scores ( p = .001) were significantly improved. There was no significant difference between Beck's Depression Inventory scores ( p > .05), but Hamilton anxiety rate scores decreased significantly ( p = .001). The quality-of-life score improved throughout the study period ( p < .05).

          Conclusions: Tadalafil therapy is an effective therapeutic option in patients with ESRD who undergo HD, not only for the treatment of ED, but also for ejaculatory function, with acceptable adverse effects.

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          Most cited references 47

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          The international index of erectile function (IIEF): a multidimensional scale for assessment of erectile dysfunction.

          To develop a brief, reliable, self-administered measure of erectile function that is cross-culturally valid and psychometrically sound, with the sensitivity and specificity for detecting treatment-related changes in patients with erectile dysfunction. Relevant domains of sexual function across various cultures were identified via a literature search of existing questionnaires and interviews of male patients with erectile dysfunction and of their partners. An initial questionnaire was administered to patients with erectile dysfunction, with results reviewed by an international panel of experts. Following linguistic validation in 10 languages, the final 15-item questionnaire, the international index of Erectile Function (IIEF), was examined for sensitivity, specificity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest repeatability), and construct (concurrent, convergent, and discriminant) validity. A principal components analysis identified five factors (that is, erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction) with eigenvalues greater than 1.0. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the five domains and for the total scale (Cronbach's alpha values of 0.73 and higher and 0.91 and higher, respectively) in the populations studied. Test-retest repeatability correlation coefficients for the five domain scores were highly significant. The IIEF demonstrated adequate construct validity, and all five domains showed a high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment. Significant (P values = 0.0001) changes between baseline and post-treatment scores were observed across all five domains in the treatment responder cohort, but not in the treatment nonresponder cohort. The IIEF addresses the relevant domains of male sexual function (that is, erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction), is psychometrically sound, and has been linguistically validated in 10 languages. This questionnaire is readily self-administered in research or clinical settings. The IIEF demonstrates the sensitivity and specificity for detecting treatment-related changes in patients with erectile dysfunction.
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            The Hamilton Anxiety Scale: reliability, validity and sensitivity to change in anxiety and depressive disorders.

            The Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) was tested for reliability and validity in two different samples, one sample (n = 97) defined by anxiety disorders, the other sample (n = 101) defined by depressive disorders. The reliability and the concurrent validity of the HAM-A and its subscales proved to be sufficient. Internal validity tested by latent structure analysis was insufficient. The major problems with the HAM-A are that (1) anxiolytic and antidepressant effects cannot be clearly distinguished; (2) the subscale of somatic anxiety is strongly related to somatic side effects. The applicability of the HAM-A in anxiolytic treatment studies is therefore limited. More specific anxiety scales are needed.
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              Effects of SSRIs on sexual function: a critical review.

              Sexual problems are highly prevalent in both men and women and are affected by, among other factors, mood state, interpersonal functioning, and psychotropic medications. The incidence of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction is difficult to estimate because of the potentially confounding effects of the illness itself, social and interpersonal comorbidities, medication effects, and design and assessment problems in most studies. Estimates of sexual dysfunction vary from a small percentage to more than 80%. This article reviews current evidence regarding sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Among the sexual side effects most commonly associated with SSRIs are delayed ejaculation and absent or delayed orgasm. Sexual desire (libido) and arousal difficulties are also frequently reported, although the specific association of these disorders to SSRI use has not been consistently shown. The effects of SSRIs on sexual functioning seem strongly dose-related and may vary among the group according to serotonin and dopamine reuptake mechanisms, induction of prolactin release, anticholinergic effects, inhibition of nitric oxide synthetase, and propensity for accumulation over time. A variety of strategies have been reported in the management of SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction, including waiting for tolerance to develop, dosage reduction, drug holidays, substitution of another antidepressant drug, and various augmentation strategies with 5-hydroxytryptamine-2 (5-HT2), 5-HT3, and alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonists, 5-HT1A and dopamine receptor agonists, and phosphodiesterase (PDE5) enzyme inhibitors. Sexual side effects of SSRIs should not be viewed as entirely negative; some studies have shown improved control of premature ejaculation in men. The impacts of sexual side effects of SSRIs on treatment compliance and on patients' quality of life are important clinical considerations.

                Author and article information

                Ren Fail
                Ren Fail
                Renal Failure
                Taylor & Francis
                25 July 2017
                : 39
                : 1
                : 582-587
                [a ] Department of Urology, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Health Sciences University , Samsun, Turkey;
                [b ] Department of Nephrology, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Health Sciences University , Samsun, Turkey;
                [c ] Department of Urology, Ondokuz Mayıs University , Samsun, Turkey
                Author notes
                CONTACT Mustafa Suat Bolat msbolat@ 123456gmail.com Health Sciences University, Samsun Training and Research Hospital, Department of Urology , Baris Bulvari, Kadikoy Mahallesi, No:199, Ilkadim, 55100, Samsun, Turkey
                © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 6, Words: 4819
                Clinical Study


                end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis, sexual dysfunction, psychology


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