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      Degradabilidad y producción de metano in vitro del follaje de árboles y arbustos con potencial en la nutrición de rumiantes Translated title: Degradability and in vitro methane production of tree and shrub foliage with potential in ruminant nutrition

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          Abstract

          Resumen El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el valor nutritivo, la fermentación ruminal y la producción de metano in vitro del follaje de especies arbóreas y arbustivas con potencial forrajero como estrategias de alimentación en época de secas y mitigación de las emisiones de metano. El líquido ruminal fue extraído por medio de una sonda esofágica. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques repetidos en el tiempo. El contenido de proteína cruda (PC) y fibra detergente neutro y acida fluctuaron de 6.14% a 21.78, 44.34% a 77.43% y 16.12% a 49.53% de materia seca (MS). No se encontró diferencia en el volumen máximo de gas (p > 0.05). La degradabilidad fue diferente, observando la mejor en Tithonia diversifolia (760.40 g/kg de MS), Morus alba (800.66 g/kg de MS) y Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (800.16 g/kg de MS), mientras que la más baja fue Megatryrsus maximus (390.40 g/kg de MS y 287.40 g/kg de materia orgánica (MO)) (p < 0.05). No se observó diferencia en la producción de metano (CH4) (p > 0.05). Se concluye que L. leucocephala, P. piscipula, B. alicastrum y G. ulmifolia, T. diversifolia y M. alba tienen un alto potencial para ser incluidos en la dieta de rumiantes como fuentes de proteína en época de secas y estrategias para mitigar las emisiones de metano.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract The objective of the study was to determine the nutritional value, ruminal fermentation, and in vitro methane production of foliage of tree and shrubs species with forage potential as feeding strategies in dry season and mitigation of methane emissions. The rumen liquor was taken by an esophageal tube. A repeated block design overtime was used. The content of crude protein (CP) and neutral and acid detergent fiber ranged from 6.14% to 21.78%, 44.34% to 77.43% and 16.12% to 49.53% of dry matter (DM). No difference was found in the maximum volume of gas (p > 0.05). The degradability was different among species, and it was higher for Tithonia diversifolia (760.40 g/kg DM), Morus alba (800.66 g/kg DM) and Hibuscus rosa-sinensis (800.16 g/kg DM), whilst the lower was for Megathyrsus maximus (390.40 g/kg DM and 287.40 g/kg organic matter (OM)) (p < 0.05). No difference in methane (CH4) production was observed (p > 0.05). It is concluded that L. leucocephala, P. piscipula, B. alicastrum and G. ulmifolia, T. diversifolia, and M. alba have a high potential to be included in the ruminant diet as sources of protein in the dry season and strategies to mitigate methane emissions.

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          Most cited references43

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          Methane emissions from cattle.

          Increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane have led scientists to examine its sources of origin. Ruminant livestock can produce 250 to 500 L of methane per day. This level of production results in estimates of the contribution by cattle to global warming that may occur in the next 50 to 100 yr to be a little less than 2%. Many factors influence methane emissions from cattle and include the following: level of feed intake, type of carbohydrate in the diet, feed processing, addition of lipids or ionophores to the diet, and alterations in the ruminal microflora. Manipulation of these factors can reduce methane emissions from cattle. Many techniques exist to quantify methane emissions from individual or groups of animals. Enclosure techniques are precise but require trained animals and may limit animal movement. Isotopic and nonisotopic tracer techniques may also be used effectively. Prediction equations based on fermentation balance or feed characteristics have been used to estimate methane production. These equations are useful, but the assumptions and conditions that must be met for each equation limit their ability to accurately predict methane production. Methane production from groups of animals can be measured by mass balance, micrometeorological, or tracer methods. These techniques can measure methane emissions from animals in either indoor or outdoor enclosures. Use of these techniques and knowledge of the factors that impact methane production can result in the development of mitigation strategies to reduce methane losses by cattle. Implementation of these strategies should result in enhanced animal productivity and decreased contributions by cattle to the atmospheric methane budget.
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            Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale.

            Decreasing enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants without altering animal production is desirable both as a strategy to reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and as a means of improving feed conversion efficiency. The aim of this paper is to provide an update on a selection of proved and potential strategies to mitigate enteric CH4 production by ruminants. Various biotechnologies are currently being explored with mixed results. Approaches to control methanogens through vaccination or the use of bacteriocins highlight the difficulty to modulate the rumen microbial ecosystem durably. The use of probiotics, i.e. acetogens and live yeasts, remains a potentially interesting approach, but results have been either unsatisfactory, not conclusive, or have yet to be confirmed in vivo. Elimination of the rumen protozoa to mitigate methanogenesis is promising, but this option should be carefully evaluated in terms of livestock performances. In addition, on-farm defaunation techniques are not available up to now. Several feed additives such as ionophores, organic acids and plant extracts have also been assayed. The potential use of plant extracts to reduce CH4 is receiving a renewed interest as they are seen as a natural alternative to chemical additives and are well perceived by consumers. The response to tannin- and saponin-containing plant extracts is highly variable and more research is needed to assess the effectiveness and eventual presence of undesirable residues in animal products. Nutritional strategies to mitigate CH4 emissions from ruminants are, without doubt, the most developed and ready to be applied in the field. Approaches presented in this paper involve interventions on the nature and amount of energy-based concentrates and forages, which constitute the main component of diets as well as the use of lipid supplements. The possible selection of animals based on low CH4 production and more likely on their high efficiency of digestive processes is also addressed. Whatever the approach proposed, however, before practical solutions are applied in the field, the sustainability of CH4 suppressing strategies is an important issue that has to be considered. The evaluation of different strategies, in terms of total GHG emissions for a given production system, is discussed.
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              Determination of extractable and bound condensed tannin concentrations in forage plants, protein concentrate meals and cereal grains

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                au
                Acta universitaria
                Acta univ
                Universidad de Guanajuato, Dirección de Investigación y Posgrado (México, Guanajuato, Mexico )
                0188-6266
                2007-9621
                2020
                : 30
                Affiliations
                [2] Yucatán orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Yucatán orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia Mexico
                [3] Campeche orgnameEl colegio de la Frontera Sur México
                [5] Yucatán orgnameInstituto Tecnológico de Tizimín orgdiv1División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación Mexico
                [7] Quintana Roo orgnameInstituto Tecnológico de la Zona Maya Mexico
                [6] orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Chiapas orgdiv1Facultad Maya de Estudios Agropecuarios Mexico
                [1] Mérida Yucatán orgnameInstituto Tecnológico de Conkal Mexico
                [4] orgnameUniversidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco orgdiv1División Académica de Ciencias Agropecuarias Mexico
                Article
                S0188-62662020000100129 S0188-6266(20)03000000129
                10.15174/au.2020.2840
                33ec08dd-ac08-4447-8e68-729ab11baf80

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 44, Pages: 0
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                mitigación,trópico,metabolitos secundarios,Metano,tropics,mitigation,secondary metabolites,Methane

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