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      Which Factors Are Associated with the Application of Reperfusion Therapy in ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes?

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims:A large proportion of patients with a ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome do not receive reperfusion therapy. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the clinical decision making process, we analyzed which factors are associated with the application of reperfusion therapy. Methods: From the Euro Heart Survey of Acute Coronary Syndromes I, 4,260 patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were selected for the current analysis, of which 1,539 (36%) patients received fibrinolysis and 904 (21%) primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The analysis contained 32 variables on demographics, medical history, admission parameters and reperfusion therapy. Results: A short pre-hospital delay, arrival in a hospital with PCI facilities, severe ST-elevation, and participation in a clinical trial were the strongest predictors for receiving reperfusion therapy. Primary PCI was more likely to be performed than fibrinolysis in patients with a long pre-hospital delay, arriving in a hospital with PCI facilities, not participating in a clinical trial, and with at least one previous PCI. Conclusion:Hospital facilities and culture, pre-hospital delay and infarction size play a major role in management decisions regarding reperfusion therapy in ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This analysis indicates which factors require special attention when implementing and reviewing the reperfusion guidelines.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials.

          Many trials have been done to compare primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with thrombolytic therapy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (AMI). Our aim was to look at the combined results of these trials and to ascertain which reperfusion therapy is most effective. We did a search of published work and identified 23 trials, which together randomly assigned 7739 thrombolytic-eligible patients with ST-segment elevation AMI to primary PTCA (n=3872) or thrombolytic therapy (n=3867). Streptokinase was used in eight trials (n=1837), and fibrin-specific agents in 15 (n=5902). Most patients who received thrombolytic therapy (76%, n=2939) received a fibrin-specific agent. Stents were used in 12 trials, and platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors were used in eight. We identified short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of death, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke, and did subgroup analyses to assess the effect of type of thrombolytic agent used and the strategy of emergent hospital transfer for primary PTCA. All analyses were done with and without inclusion of the SHOCK trial data. Primary PTCA was better than thrombolytic therapy at reducing overall short-term death (7% [n=270] vs 9% [360]; p=0.0002), death excluding the SHOCK trial data (5% [199] vs 7% [276]; p=0.0003), non-fatal reinfarction (3% [80] vs 7% [222]; p<0.0001), stroke (1% [30] vs 2% [64]; p=0.0004), and the combined endpoint of death, non-fatal reinfarction, and stroke (8% [253] vs 14% [442]; p<0.0001). The results seen with primary PTCA remained better than those seen with thrombolytic therapy during long-term follow-up, and were independent of both the type of thrombolytic agent used, and whether or not the patient was transferred for primary PTCA. Primary PTCA is more effective than thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of ST-segment elevation AMI.
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            ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction; A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1999 Guidelines for the Management of patients with acute myocardial infarction).

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              Early thrombolytic treatment in acute myocardial infarction: reappraisal of the golden hour.

              There is conclusive evidence from clinical trials that reduction of mortality by fibrinolytic therapy in acute myocardial infarction is related to the time elapsing between onset of symptoms and commencement of treatment. However, the exact pattern of this relation continues to be debated. This paper discusses whether or not appreciable additional gain can be achieved with very early treatment. The relation between treatment delay and short-term mortality (up to 35 days) was evaluated using tabulated data from all randomised trials of at least 100 patients (n = 22; 50,246 patients) that compared fibrinolytic therapy with placebo or control, reported between 1983 and 1993. Benefit of fibrinolytic therapy was 65 (SD 14), 37 (9), 26 (6) and 29 (5) lives saved per 1000 treated patients in the 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, and 3-6 h intervals, respectively. Proportional mortality reduction was significantly higher in patients treated within 2 h compared to those treated later (44% [95% CI 32, 53] vs 20% [15, 25]; p = 0.001). The relation between treatment delay and mortality reduction per 1000 treated patients was expressed significantly better by a non-linear (19.4-0.6x(+)29.3x-1) than a linear (34.7 - 1.6x) regression equation (p = 0.03). The beneficial effect of fibrinolytic therapy is substantially higher in patients presenting within 2 h after symptom onset compared to those presenting later.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2006
                September 2006
                29 September 2006
                : 106
                : 3
                : 137-146
                Affiliations
                University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
                Article
                92768 Cardiology 2006;106:137–146
                10.1159/000092768
                16636543
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 30, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Original Research

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