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      The immature stages and biology of two Xenapates species in West Africa (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)

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      Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The immature stages and host plants of Xenapates Kirby, 1882 were hitherto unknown. We describe the larvae, prepupae and pupae of X. braunsi (Konow, 1896) and X. gaullei (Konow, 1896), and record observations on aspects of their biology. The relationship of Xenapates to other taxa currently placed in the Allantinae and Blennocampinae of the Tenthredinidae remains unclear. Most larval characters of Xenapates resemble those described for West Palaearctic Allantini (Allantinae) and some Blennocampinae, but unique amongst exophytic larvae of Tenthredinoidea is the complete absence of cuticular appendages on the dorsum of the trunk in the two Xenapates species studied. The setose outer surface of the abdominal prolegs of Xenapates, and the presence of a mesal ridge only on the left mandible, are character states that have not so far been recorded in other genera currently placed in the Allantinae or Blennocampinae. Larval host plants of X. braunsi are Digitaria horizontalis, Pennisetum purpureum, Setaria barbata and Zea mays (all Poaceae). X. gaullei larvae feed on two Commelina species (Commelinaceae). Larvae of both species are easy bleeders.

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          Most cited references 10

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          World Catalog of Symphyta (Hymenoptera)

          The first complete World Catalog of sawflies (Hymenoptera, suborder Symphyta) for over 100 years is presented. It contains references to the original descriptions and provides brief distributional data for 803 genera, 8353 species (123 with two or more subspecies) and 161 subspecies in addition to the nominal subspecies. 15245 proposed names are treated, including replacement names, infrasubspecific names and nomina nuda, of which only 22 could not be checked in the original publications. Current taxonomic placement of genera and species and occurrence in zoogeographic regions are indicated. The list of names contains 31245 name combinations, variant spellings and family-group names. The authors attempted to consult all publications with taxonomic content referring to Symphyta that have appeared up to 31.12.2009. The 2960 cited references include all those that are known to contain original descriptions of taxa. Short biographical data and portraits of 168 symphytologists as well as images of representatives of extant sawfly taxa are included.
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            Phylogeny of the symphytan grade of Hymenoptera: new pieces into the old jigsaw(fly) puzzle

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              The genera of Nematinae (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)

              Recent phylogenetic studies on Nematinae based on DNA sequences have shown extensive incongruencies with current nomenclature of genus-group taxa. Here, we expand previous DNA sequence datasets based on three genes (CoI, Cytb, and EF-1α), to include a fourth (NaK) and more genera. The analyses largely confirm the previous findings, particularly the existence of two well-supported large clades, Euura and Pristiphora, together comprising more than 75% of the species of Nematinae. Basal relationships within these two clades remain poorly resolved, mirroring the difficulties in delimiting genera based on morphology. In addition, a moderately supported small clade, Nematus, is found. The relationships between the Euura, Pristiphora, and Nematus clades are uncertain. Therefore, to stabilize the nomenclature we treat these clades as genera. This taxonomic treatment results in numerous new combinations of species names. The following synonymies are proposed for the available genus-group names. Synonyms of Euura Newman, 1837: Cryptocampus Hartig, 1837, Euura Agassiz, 1848, Pontania Costa, 1852, syn. n., Epitactus Förster, 1854, syn. n., Amauronematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocneme Konow, 1890, syn. n., Pachynematus Konow, 1890, syn. n., Holcocnema Schulz, 1906, syn. n., Holcocnemis Konow, 1907, syn. n., Pteronidea Rohwer, 1911, syn. n., Pontopristia Malaise, 1921, syn. n., Brachycoluma Strand, 1929, syn. n., Decanematus Malaise, 1931, syn. n., Pikonema Ross, 1937, syn. n., Phyllocolpa Benson, 1960, syn. n., Eitelius Kontuniemi, 1966, syn. n., Gemmura E.L. Smith, 1968, Eupontania Zinovjev, 1985, syn. n., Larinematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Polynematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Bacconematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, syn. n., Alpinematus Lacourt, 1996, syn. n., Epicenematus Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Kontuniemiana Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Lindqvistia Lacourt, 1998, syn. n., Luea Wei and Nie, 1998, syn. n., and Tubpontania Vikberg, 2010, syn. n. Synonyms of Nematus Panzer, 1801: Craesus Leach, 1817, Hypolaepus W.F. Kirby, 1882, and Paranematus Zinovjev, 1978. Synonyms of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810: Diphadnus Hartig, 1837, Lygaeonematus Konow, 1890, Micronematus Konow, 1890, Gymnonychus Marlatt, 1896, Neopareophora MacGillivray, 1908, syn. n., Neotomostethus MacGillivray, 1908, Dineuridea Rohwer, 1912, Sala Ross, 1937, Pristola Ross, 1945, syn. n., Nepionema Benson, 1960, syn. n., Melastola Wong, 1968, syn. n., Sharliphora Wong, 1969, Oligonematus Zhelochovtsev, 1988, Lygaeotus Liston, 1993, Lygaeophora Liston, 1993, and Pristicampus Zinovjev, 1993, syn. n. Varna Ross, 1937, syn. n. is treated as a synonym of Dineura Dahlbom 1835. Stauronematus Benson, 1953 is treated as a separate genus from Pristiphora. Names of 20 species-group taxa are junior secondary homonyms when combined with Euura. Replacement names are proposed for these. To facilitate the identification of Nematinae genera, we provide an illustrated key to the 31 extant genera of world Nematinae.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift
                DEZ
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-1324
                1435-1951
                February 06 2015
                February 06 2015
                : 62
                : 1
                : 9-17
                Article
                10.3897/dez.62.8922
                © 2015
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