The sliding friction of rock, involving all kinds of particles at the contact surface, is relevant to many problems, ranging from those in artificial engineering to earthquake dynamics. In this work, the frictional performance of the shale rock–dry quartz sand contact was investigated using a self-developed testing device. The study showed that the coefficient of friction of the contact increases with nominal stress and that the corresponding friction force increases approximately linearly with nominal stress, which is directly related to the contact stress between each single sand particle and rock shale. An overall dynamic coefficient, γ, reflecting the response of friction force to nominal stress, first decreases and then increases with area ratio, which is determined by not only the contact stress but also the interparticle friction force. These have important repercussions for a preliminary understanding of the frictional properties of the shale rock–dry quartz sand contact in hydraulic fracturing and related industrial applications.