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      Defining Growth Hormone Status in Adults with Hypopituitarism

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          Abstract

          The identification of adults with severe growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is not straightforward. The insulin tolerance test remains the gold standard diagnostic test, although other stimuli such as GH-releasing hormone-arginine are gaining acceptance. Insulin-like growth factor-I has a poor diagnostic sensitivity in adult-onset GHD, but is more useful in the subgroup of adults with childhood-onset GHD. Therapeutic developments include increasing recognition of the need to continue GH therapy beyond final height in young adults with severe GHD on retesting. Consensus guidelines have provided a useful algorithm to identify individuals requiring retesting and the number of tests needed. The concept of partial GHD, recognized by paediatric endocrinologists for many years, is being examined in adults with hypothalamic-pituitary disease. Preliminary evidence suggests that this entity is associated with metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities intermediate between those in severe GHD and in healthy controls. It remains to be seen whether this subgroup will derive benefit from GH therapy. To date, therapeutic benefits of GH have been demonstrated only in adults with severe GHD. It is, therefore, imperative that these individuals are unequivocally identified; the diagnosis becomes more uncertain in the presence of obesity, increasing age, and in the absence of additional pituitary hormone deficits.

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          Most cited references 69

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          The effects of treatment with recombinant human growth hormone on body composition and metabolism in adults with growth hormone deficiency.

          In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we studied the effects of six months of growth hormone replacement in 24 adults with growth hormone deficiency. Most of the patients had acquired growth hormone deficiency during adulthood as a consequence of treatment for pituitary tumors, and all were receiving appropriate thyroid, adrenal, and gonadal hormone replacement. The daily dose of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was 0.07 U per kilogram of body weight, given subcutaneously at bedtime. The mean (+/- SE) plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor I increased from 0.41 +/- 0.05 to 1.53 +/- 0.16 U per liter during rhGH treatment. Treatment with rhGH had no effect on body weight. The mean lean body mass, however, increased by 5.5 +/- 1.1 kg (P less than 0.0001), and the fat mass decreased by 5.7 +/- 0.9 kg (P less than 0.0001) in the group treated with growth hormone; neither changed significantly in the placebo group. The basal metabolic rate, measured at base line and after one and six months of rhGH administration, increased significantly; the respective values were 32.4 +/- 1.4, 37.2 +/- 2.2, and 34.4 +/- 1.6 kcal per kilogram of lean body mass per day (P less than 0.001 for both comparisons). Fasting plasma cholesterol levels were lower (P less than 0.05) in the rhGH-treated group than in the placebo group, whereas plasma triglyceride values were similar in the two groups throughout the study. We conclude that growth hormone has a role in the regulation of body composition in adults, probably through its anabolic and lipolytic actions.
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            Consensus Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone (GH) Deficiency in Childhood and Adolescence: Summary Statement of the GH Research Society

             G. Society (2000)
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              Abdominal fat and insulin resistance in normal and overweight women: Direct measurements reveal a strong relationship in subjects at both low and high risk of NIDDM.

              Insulin resistance appears to be central to obesity, NIDDM, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. While obese women with abdominal (android) fat distribution are more insulin resistant than those with peripheral (gynecoid) obesity, in nonobese women, the relationship between abdominal fat and insulin resistance is unknown. By measuring regional adiposity with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in 22 healthy women, with a mean +/- SE body BMI of 26.7 +/- 0.9 kg/m2 and differing risk factors for NIDDM, we found a strong negative relationship between central abdominal (intra-abdominal plus abdominal subcutaneous) fat and whole-body insulin sensitivity (r = -0.89, P < 0.0001) and nonoxidative glucose disposal (r = -0.77, P < 0.001), independent of total adiposity, family history of NIDDM, and past gestational diabetes. There was a large variation in insulin sensitivity, with a similar variation in central fat, even in those whose BMI was <25 kg/m2. Abdominal fat had a significantly stronger relationship with insulin sensitivity than peripheral nonabdominal fat (r2 = 0.79 vs. 0.44), and higher levels were associated with increased fasting nonesterified fatty acids, lipid oxidation, and hepatic glucose output. Because 79% of the variance in insulin sensitivity in this heterogeneous population was accounted for by central fat, abdominal adiposity appears to be a strong marker and may be a major determinant of insulin resistance in women.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                September 2007
                27 March 2007
                : 68
                : 4
                : 185-194
                Affiliations
                Department of Endocrinology, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Manchester, UK
                Article
                101286 Horm Res 2007;68:185–194
                10.1159/000101286
                17389809
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 73, Pages: 10
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